Thursday, January 31, 2019
Marijuana The LegalizationTheir Side After the sustaining suffrage in November of 1996 and coming into effect the beginning of this year, marihuana is now judicial to medical patients in California and Arizona. Proposition 215 reads as follows The great deal of the put forward of California hereby find and declare that the purposes of the Compassionate Use act of 1996 are as follows (A) To ensure that seriously ill Californians have the set to obtain and utilization marihuana for medical purposes where that medical affair is deemed admit and has been recommended by a physician who has determined that the persons health would benefit from the use of marijuana in the treatment of cancer, anorexia, AIDS, chronic pain, spasticity, glaucoma, arthritis, migraine, or any opposite illness for which marijuana provides relief. (B) To ensure that patients and their primary care givers obtain and use marijuana for medical purposes upon the recommendation of a physician are non subject to criminal prosecution or sanction. C. To encourage the federal and evince governments to implement a plan for the safe and affordable distribution of marijuana to all patients in medical need of marijuana. (Proposition 215 Section 11362.5) Of course, it goes on and breaks into delicately detail into which I choose not to venture. To summarize it all, if youre sick, or retrieve you are, your doc can get you some pot. Just like that. So whats so great about this? It supposedly brings relief to those with terminal illnesses. (Such were listed in 215) Cancer sufferers who are inflicted with nausea due to chemotherapy have reported that a puff or two of a marijuana cigarette softens the pain. (Theorized after(prenominal) study by psychiatrist Lester Grinspoon of Harvard Medical School) It has also been reported to relieve the pain suffered by AIDS patients. Despite all this great relief, unmatchable question delays unanswered, what about the side effects? Exactly how subtle and a ddicting is this stuff? MY SIDE (the important stuff) My personal opinion Marijuana should remain illegal because of the enormous side effects and addiction that results after using the drug. My first fact to back my opinion would have to be this, marijuana is what it is, a drug You cant change that no matter how many people vote on it. Sure, there are prescription drugs on the foodstuff that are potentially dangerous but their effects are zip fastener compared to that of marijuana.
Wednesday, January 30, 2019
Beca wasting disease I nominate upnt read the perfectly account book recitation Gorman Galatians Ch9 is at first a bit confusing. However, I must say that the reading is very diffuse to read and easy to understand. Gorman used very simple terms and easy English for his indorser to read and understand.Basically in this short chapter Gorman try to exegesis the whole book of Galatians in his own rationality and research. Ive founded that there atomic number 18 lacks of manifest of resources, as in not much of references quote in this chapter, Gorman well-set sources for his argument in this chapter would be the book Galatians itself, he kept referring dorsum to Galatians and because of that the arguments seemed to be persuasive but at the same time lacks of living up from others. Many of Gorman explanations in this epistle were unjustified, for example the dating of the letter and I quote on page187 although no firm conclusion is possible inwardly the range of years 49-55 , the most likely date, in this writers estimations is 50-55, properly from Ephesus It would be to a greater extent convincing if Gorman could give us more than evidence virtually the date and place of written. Over all the exegesis of the entire Galatians in this chapter was not that of rigorous at all.Gorman definitely give us a elucidate view on capital of Minnesotas means to the Galatians. Anyone who read this chapter will veritablely get a clear understanding of the gospel, not only to the Galatians but in any case for the churches today as well. Gorman end the chapter well with the 10 moves for reflection, these 10 reflections questions argon the issue that we are face up right now as a contemporary Christians, especially question 10, and I would like to end this review with the same question In sum, what does this letter urge the church to believe, to hope for, and to do?Second tiny review is on an article by Martinus C. de Boer, titled Galatians A translation from week 4 reading.To be honest I find this reading is a bit lengthy, especially the entire article is focus on the exegesis of only 6 verses. Having say that Martinus taking the time out to all the way informed the conflict between capital of Minnesota and Cephas in Antioch oer the issue of The trueness of the Gospel. I agreed with Martinus that this is not only important for Paul and the Christians in the 1st century but in like manner to all of us today, we odd to understand the message of the justice of the gospel (25, 14).Because this is a commentary, it is clear evidence that the Martinus gave a wide range of evidence to his arguments. I also have to say that the exegesis in this article is precised, however, if it is to focus on the truth gospel of Christ, I feel that Martinus could have mention more of Paul other letters to back up the topic of the true gospel, sort of of a very long exegesis around the confrontation of Paul and Cephas, I would have looked at Paul conversi on passage to prove more of Paul conviction for his true gospel.Martinus translated Jews who is circumcised as the circumcision party page 133. Im not sure if I would agree with Martinus here, because lacks of evidence in this statement made by Martinus, Im not sure if this is a political view or is it direct translation from its headmaster text?Over all from reading this article, apart from the fact that it is a long article, Ive founded that it is very helpful for churches today to see the historic of Pauls letter through Martinus book. Definitely an issue arises for the use of the Bible today in our own context, for example Paul and mother fucker relationship. Can two Christians have disagreements that eventually lead them to different driveway?The final reading is from Charles H. Cosgrove The Cross and The Spirit chapter 3 The Logic of the contend Theology.Over all I find that this is a really toilsome piece to read, the precise and information was great, however, I feel th at there are some stuffs that he could have leave out, and that he doesnt have to go into details as such, for example Cosgrove goes on and talk about(predicate) the Torah is for Life on page 90 and from there on, Ive sight that he kept going back to the Torah for his arguments throughout the rest of the chapter.Cosgrove make it clear to his readers about Paul wanting to hammer us about heart in crucified Jesus. Nothing important to Paul than that we have life in Jesus. Cosgrove shared some light about the Christian Jews that are actually after Paul and not the Romans, and this is consistent with what Ive intentional in the unit of measurement and also other theologians.Later in the chapter Cosgrove also pin point the agitators and one again its consistent with the unit teaching and also others theologians, example Barclay who concluded in his book that Agitators were Christian Jews probably from Jerusalem. Mark D Nanos also suggested the same thing, so over all Cosgrove argume nt was very persuasive and clear evidence of a large selective of different sources. Finally, Cosgrove really trying hard to explain to his reader the opposing theology between Paul and everyone who are at the Galatians, this would certainly help us today as we read Galatians with a more clear picture of its context and understanding of where Paul and the others are coming from.
Tuesday, January 29, 2019
The long history of administrational contest in Great Britain has always been between the traditionalist and bray Parties. bailiwick leaders who were representative of both come and go in the same(p) way as the popularity of both parties rise and fall all over decades.Labor callers Tony Blair was able to bring keystone the party into the limelight where it was previously before 1970s. Its close rival party, the Conservatives has enjoyed the prestige during the seventies when the undertaking companionship made countless mistakes, or shall we say unsound decisions on apprehend slues and policies.CNN News called that particular labor issue as the partys tailspin which includes Labor-spending policies, which brought Britain to an economic situation where it shamefully needs to seek for the attention of the World Bank through a bailout loan (Blystone, Richard). A family called wintertime of Discontent which ran from 1978 to 1979 turned the popularity of the Labour societ y upside d consume. The strap thing that could ever happen as a consequence of the yearlong dissatisfy was to lose the seat in the next election.The Labour Party was losing concur as more(prenominal) and more people go to the streets and merge rallies. That year, there were about 4.6 million workers to go on strike make the British economy around 29 million workdays. Part of the protests against the Labour brass was to let their garbage remain un self-collected in the streets which orient that no one would want to go out work during those days.In 1980, the Labour Partys fear of losing the election came as had never been judge after rumblings of discontent with William Hagues leadership. Margaret Thatcher of the Conservative Party beat the Labours representative in the national elections. It was also important to mention that the Conservative Party won a majority of 33 seats in the Parliament. After Thatchers victory, the Labour Party did not gestate any chance of winnin g over the Conservatives for 18 years.Thatcher was the first woman in the British political party who work roll in hand with John Powell to bring the Conservative Party into a strong political party after losing in the 1974 elections. Conservatives have also undergone erratic relationships deep d admit the party, members come and go and move to and from other parties especially on cases where there are major disagreements in its member. With Powell and Thatcher, things got better this time. Their strategy to bring cover charge the popularity of the Conservatives was to take the opportunity to win the hearts and trust of the people during the Winter of Discontent.They made use of the media to make people believe that the government should not in any way have an involvement in the social and economic matters. Thatcher constructed a new social base of support for her party that came less from the traditional conservatives backers, the upper classes and landed gentry, than from the m iddle classes and experient workers who felt increasingly discontent and unrepresented by the traditional policies and orientations of the two major political parties (Rasmussen, et.al. 1995).Thatchers gained popularity through the Conservative Party enabled her to win the 1979 elections first, because of the discontent of the people on labor issues the year before the elections. Second, it might have been because the people wanted another leader outside the Labour government since the latter was not able to make labour concerns a antecedence in running their government. Lastly, the British have cognize Thatcher as like a shot opposed to the labour ideas of the Labour government and of course a be given have promised the people to have such labor disputes a antecedence in the next elections which they won.Thatcher was a witty leader in his hold right. She won the 1983 elections after having it scheduled at the time when victory over Falkland Islands against Argentina was stil l fresh. Timely with the British economic growth, Thatcher still move the 1987 elections which let her stay in power until 1990. But Thatcher failed to bring the Conservatives back in power in the 1990 elections. Although Thatcher was undoubtedly popular at that time, and that Thatcher was known for her sound leadership in dealing with the internal conflicts within her own party, John Major brought her down this time.There were issues which attributed Thatchers lost of support from her own party because of her hesitation to support European integration. In this regard, Thatcher compromised her political sic when she directly opposed to the general opinion of the British people towards the integration.One more thing was the Thatchers poll tax which taxed registered voters to replace property taxes collected by local councils and which was widely viewed as regressive by impose the lower income strata more heavily than the upper classes. With the leadership of John Major, the issue of poll tax was little by little eradicated.
A drug abuser with full permissions and who misuse his powers. hugger-mugger user A user who acts as a supervisor and tries to use his privileges so as to avoid being captured. edit Types of infringement espial organisations For the conclude of dealing with IT, there are two main types of IDS Network infraction detection agreement (NIDS) It is an independent platform that identifies intrusions by examining meshing job and monitors multiple hosts. Network intrusion detection systems gain access to network job by connecting to a network hub, network switch piece for port mirroring, or network tap.In a NIDS, sensors are turn up at choke points in the network to be monitored, often in the demilitarized zone (DMZ) or at network borders. Sensors captures all network traffic and analyzes the content of individual packets for malicious traffic. An example of a NIDS is Snort. Host-based intrusion detection system (HIDS) It consists of an agent on a host that identifies intrusions by analyzing system calls, application logs, file-system modifications (binaries, password files, capability databases, Access control lists, etc. ) and different host activities and state.In a HIDS, sensors usually consist of a parcel agent. Some application-based IDS are also part of this category. An example of a HIDS is OSSEC. misdemeanour detection systems can also be system-specific using custom tools and honeypots. In the case of physical building security, IDS is defined as an alarm system designed to detect unauthorized entry. edit Passive and/or reactive systems In a passive system, the intrusion detection system (IDS) sensor detects a potential security breach, logs the information and signals an alert on the console and or owner.In a reactive system, also known as an intrusion prevention system (IPS), the IPS auto-responds to the suspicious activity by resetting the connection or by reprogramming the firewall to block network traffic from the suspected malicious sour ce. The termination IDPS is commonly used where this can happen automatically or at the command of an operator systems that both detect (alert) and/or prevent. edit Comparison with firewalls though they both relate to network security, an intrusion detection system (IDS) differs from a firewall in that a firewall looks outwardly for intrusions in order to stop them from happening.
Monday, January 28, 2019
The Baroque period happened right after the Renaissance, an date best defined by the emergence of unique styles. Baroque liter onlyy means bizarre, and this is used to describe architectural designs during that date. Buildings of this design were discovered to be highly ornamented and decorated. Later, the term has also been applied to music.This style differs greatly from the Renaissance and the Classical style of music by means of instruments used, meat of experimentation, and techniques utilized in composing and in performing the musical lay outs.Musicians of this time experimented greatly on music genres, used divergent playing styles, evolved and changed a lot of traditional musical nonations, improved on the complexity of instruments, and highlighted a point in history where music has changed dramatically. This era was indeed a turning point for music, giving birth to composers destined to be remembered until now. integrity of these geniuses is Johann Sebastian live. b ach was born on the 21st of March, 1685 to a well famed family of musicians.His induce was Ambrocious, the court trumpeter for the Duke of Eisenach and a musical director for the townspeople and his mother was Maria Elisabetha Lammerhirt. Many of the Bachs were known for being instrumentalists, church organists, and singers all through out the town. Johann Sebastian Bach, as early as eight eld old, begun singing in a choir they and his friends have founded at their school. preliminary to this, he has been taught on how to play the violin and the harpsichord by his father and the organ by his uncle. He immediately became proficient with these instruments, particularly the organ.But dowry has not been very kind to him, and at an early age, he disconnected his mother, father, a brother and a sister (Boyd, 1983). These early tragedies did not slack Bach down, and at a young age of 18, Bach started to be known all through out his village and other next towns. He became a regular singer at choirs and a lots praised organist at congregations. He traveled to different places, and was hired by different courts as their chief musician and composer. He was able to start a family by marrying Maria Barbara, who gave birth to four children.His wife then died before long after while Bach was out on a change of location performance. Bach then remarried, this time with Anna Magdalena, who remained faithful in taking thrill of their children and in copying Bachs manuscripts. He lived his life well, created a family, and composed hundreds of pieces before lying to rest on July 28, 1750 (Boyd, 1983). The life of Bach behind be seen as a flow of history told by his compositions. His famous pieces, usually short scores collected in a book, are manifestations of his life at the current time the music was composed.Take for casing his work Mass at B Minor, started at astir(predicate) 1724 and completed at 1749, just a year before his remainder (Smith, 1996). This is a 4 -part piece which depicts Bachs lifetime devotion to religion. As a student years back, he studied Theology, and even top his class at a very young age. Another piece Bach is known for is the lengthy Brandenburg Concertos which he completed at near 1721 or earlier. These 6 concertos are dedicated to Christian Ludwig, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt, who was pleasured by Bachs innate talent for music. Bach used this piece to pass for a position on the Margraves court as a musician (Chee).Finally, his work entitled The Musical Offering marks the timeline in his life when he played for the King of Prussia, Frederick II at almost 1747. This Kings theme started as an improvised piece by Bach, and later became a full length book used by many of his successors (Rasmussen, 2001). Bach is a very accomplished musician. His life was not always that perfect, in fact he had a lot of pitfalls and bleak tragedies such as death of a loved one. But he showed the foundation that by having a pas sion for something like music, one can surpass all trials presented to him.And by dedicating his life to his work, he became a composer-legend the world will never forget. References Boyd, M. (1983). Bach. Timeline retrieved from http//www. jsbach. org/timeline. hypertext markup language Chee, B. The Brandenburg Concertos. Inkpot Issue 95. Retrieved from http//inkpot. com/classical/bachbrandenburg. hypertext markup language Rasmussen, M. (2001). Bach, Mozart, and the Musical Midwife, The New Federalist, Retrieved from http//www. schillerinstitut. dk/bach. html Smith, A. (1996). Bachs Mass in B Minor as a Musical Icon. Lecture retrieved from http//jan. ucc. nau. edu/tas3/musicon. html
Bronislaw Mali todayski, with his ground-breaking field melt of the Trobriand Islander community in the beginning of the 20th century tranquillize today counts as a pioneer, if not the founder of the British tender Anthropology. In his famous book Argonauts of the Western Pacific. An Account of Native endeavor and Adventure in the Archipelagos of Melanesian New Guinea that was first-class honours degree published in 1922 he develops an elaborate methodological framework for ethnographic enquiry, also know as recrudesceicipant placard.This method will highly twist the anthropological way of life of mounting its field of drive and hence its suppositional landscape from then on. Looking at Malinowskis description of the kin group dodge of the Trobriand community, his descriptive and specifying style of formulation becomes app atomic number 18nt Each of the quadruplet cliques has its own name Malasi, Lukuba, Lukwasisiga, Lukulabuta. () There are special combinations of th e clan c on the whole with formative roots, to descrive men and women and the mixed plurality be giganticing to the same clan Tomalasi a Malasi man Immalasi a Malasi women Memalasi the Malasi people ().Near the village of LabaI, on the northern shore of the main island, there is a spot c aloneed Obukula, which is attach by a coral outcrop. Obukula is, in fact, a hole (dubwadebula), or house (bwala) that is to say, one of the presents from which the first ancestors of the linage emerged. (Malinowski 1929 496 f. , italics in original) This very nuanced and fount specific example of the actual gained from his methodological advent gives rise to the mind if Malinowskis heritage of participant placard has forever distanced Anthropology from bringing forth gram theories?To be able to consider and discuss this question, it is important to first define what Malinowski circumscribed when he laid out his dogma for ethnographical research by the term participant observation. Sec ondly, a closer supervision of the dictum marvelous guess is indispensable for our purpose and will be clarified in the second section of this essay. Subsequently, we will look at these two concepts and their tellingship to one an otherwise in section 3 in order to approach the question whether Anthropology can be viewed as a attainment able to produce mebibyte theories. I. Participant observation In the foreword to Argonauts of the Western Pacific Malinowski states that he has lived in that Trobriand Island archipelago for about two years (), during which time he naturally acquired a thorough noesis of the language. He did his work entirely alone, living for the greater part of the time respectable in the village. (1966 xvi). This disceptation already contains the essence of participant observation in fieldwork.The hallmark of this methodological way of collecting entropy is the immersion of the tec into her or his field of study over a long power point of time and the personal part taking in the interactions of the people in the community studied. When Malinowski defined this new approach of first-hand observation he stone-broke with the, at that time prevailing tradition of armchair ethnography. In this prior approach, ethnographers compiled data gained from diachronic sources to deduce theories about original aspects of a usually primeval community (Osterhoudt 2010).One of the main contributions of Malinowskis new method to anthropological theory was that by participating and observing behaviour in the sampling community he found out that a discrepancy betwixt unfeigned behaviour and narrative statements exists. The smoothness and uniformity, which the mere verbal statement suggest as the only shape of benignant conduct, disappears with a interrupt knowledge of cultural creation. (Malinowski 1979 83). This discovery in itself already composes a point of criticism towards the preceding ethnographical arm-chair approach to data collecti on and evaluation. even though participant observation is based on a on the face of it broad and intuitive research design, it would, however, be incorrect to assume that this approach would be free of any directive principles on how to collect applicable data.Therefore, Malinowski describes how first, the researcher must possess real scientific aims (Malinowski 1966 6) and be long-familiar with the theoretical background of anthropology. Further, the researcher should live in the field among the natives all by herself/ himself, and lastly the researcher has to stick to special and strict scientific methods, such as drawing tables of kinship terms, genealogies, maps, plans and diagrams (idib. 1966 10) to collect, prepare and record her/his data.The front example of the clan system provides a sense of the detailed and geek specific information that is obtained by the industry of participant observation. Besides the diverseness of the data collected, it should also be looked at the area of research and Malinowskis suggestion of the subject to be studied. He proposes that the field worker observes military personnel cosmoss acting at bottom an environmental setting, natural and artificial influenced by it, and in turn transforming it in co-operation with each other. (Malinowski 1939 940). Thus, he focuses on the individual as a starting point and its relation to, and plebeian dependence on a companionable group. The inquiries of a researcher will hence bemuse to include a specific study of the individual, as substantially as the group within which he has to live and work. (idib. 1939 950). The collective life within that group or society is widely to be seen in certain types of activities, institutions such as the economy, education, or social control and political system in place (idib.1939 954). These institutions, as he points out, can be seen as a fruitful base to investigate the individuals motives and determine and they will provide insight i nto the process by which the individual is learned or culturally formed and of the group mechanisms of this process. (idib. 1939 954). II. Grand Theory In the following, the dictum grand theory will be specified and by doing so distinguished into two different tendencies of take careing the concept.Wiarda (2010) defines a grand theory in his book Grand Theories and Ideologies in the Social Sciences as those large, overarching explanations of social and political behaviorliberalism, Marxism, socialism, positivism, corporatism, political culture, institutionalism, psychoanalysis, rational choice theory, environmentalism (Jared Diamond), sociobiology, and now chemistry and geneticsthat give coherence to the social sciences, help us to organize and think about change and modernization, and give us models to understand conglomerate behavior. (Wiarda 2010 x)This definition of grand theory as an overarching explanation is in grapevine with Anthony Goods (1996) understanding of a gene ralizing science that produces universal, descriptive and predictive laws (idib. 1996 34). Here a grand theory is understood as a theorem providing a universal and structural framework that gives meaning to busy and individual phenomena on the ground. In this process the importance of the topical anesthetic anaesthetic and the contingent, () the extent to which our own concepts and attitudes have been shaped (Skinner 1985 8) builds also a part of the universal framework.The second tendency to conceive the idea of grand theory goes a step further and is mainly characterized by C. Wright mill about application of it. He vigorously criticised the concept in his book The Sociological conception (1959) The basic cause of grand theory is the initial choice of a level of thinking so general that its practitioners cannot logically get graduate to observation. They never, as grand theorists, get down from the higher generalities to problems in their historical and structural contexts.T his absence of a firm sense of genuine problems, in turn, makes for the unreality so noticeable in their pages. (idib. 1959 33) As this quote shows, move understanding of a grand theory goes beyond our first definition. In this second understanding Mills implies that scientists generating grand theories are engrossed in their endeavour to build abstract, normative and all-embracing frameworks and thus neglect the study of the meaning behind their constructs.The individual with its particular values and interpretations, as well as variety on the scale of the actual area of research fall behind. III. Participant Observation and its relation to Grand Theory interpreted the just outlined conception of grand theory influenced by Mills and putting it in relationship with Malinowskis methodology of participant observation, the coif to our question whether or not Malinowskis heritage barred the way of Anthropology to ever produce grand theories appears unambiguously to be yes.Participant observation in its very nature is close to the individual and aims to explore, over a long period of time, which social and cultural forces influence the human being in a specific setting. Therefore, with regards to Mills conception of grand theory, Anthropology has a birth defect called participant observation that will always hold back it from producing highly abstract grand theories, which stand in no relation to the circumstances from where they were deduced from.A closer look reveals that Malinowskis understanding of the anthropological formation of theory aligns with Mills criticism towards highly abstract grand theories It would be easy to quote works of high repute, and with a scientific hall-mark on them, in which wholesale generalisations are laid down earlier us, and we are not informed at all by what actual experiences the writers have reached their conclusions.() I consider that only such ethnographic sources are of unquestionable scientific value, in which we can cl early draw the line surrounded by, on the one hand, the result of direct observation and of native statements and interpretations and on the other, the inferences of the author, based on his common sense of psychological insight. (Malinowski 1966 3) Here Malinowski differences between two approaches of data processing.One approach leads to mere wholesale generalisations and the other approach also includes the actual experiences the researcher faced on the local level that explain on what assumptions and observations her or his generalizations are based on. He hence supports the notion of Anthropology as a science of producing generalisations, as long as they are comprehensible and in direct relation to the reality on the ground. Malinowskis ethnographies exist to a vast amount of descriptive details that are very specific to certain social groups or individual preferences and he has hence often been criticized as an empiricist (see Firth 1957).Also, one could present that his at tempt to put his findings in a neat structured rap with columns, as he has done in his article Group and separate in Functional Analysis (1966) seem rather compelled. Nevertheless, he was able to provide social science with universal and generalizing frameworks on, inter alia, on how social institutions function in relation to society. He states that social institutions have a definite organisation, () they are governed by authority, law and order in their frequent and personal relations, while the latter are, besides, under the control of extremely complex ties of kinship and clanship. (Malinowski 1966 10). Malinowskis suggestion to use institution as a starting point for social and cultural analysis has produced integrated descriptions or else of loosely classified catalogues of traits, and has stimulated the fuller recording of case material from actual behavior as a supplement to the listing of warning patterns. (Murdock 1943 443). Following Malinowskis ethnographic method and theory construction accordingly aims to create a firm framework of the social constitution that disentangles the laws and regularities of all cultural phenomena from the irrelevances. (Malinowski 1966 10f. ). His approach is thus far more that only an assemblage of meaningless observations of an individuals life in a very specific society. Considering these arguments, Malinowski approach can, indeed, be seen as congruent with our first tendency to understand grand theory. The answer to our initial question should hence be that Anthropology is a science that can certainly produce grand theories in the sense of generalise frameworks and universalistic theories, without neglecting the importance of the local and the contingent (Skinner 1985 12).Furthermore, Anthropology can be viewed as an established science with its own field of study being the human being and its social group as well as their mutual dependencies and influences. Anthropology stands in a clear relationship to the other basic science, because it is relate with studying phenomena at one clearly discriminate level tete-a-tete those other sciences. (Good 1996 32)
Sunday, January 27, 2019
Brandi Faulk English 421 Dr. Tiffany Adams February 15, 2013 The Man Himself Many people wonder who Marcus Garvey is. He was born a raised in St. Ann Bay Jamaica. During his young purport Garvey was not aware of any racial segregation of livids and darks. However, he had a few childhood friends. At the age of fourteen Garvey was called a jigaboo by one of his white friends and he was told that he could never be able to see his white friends again. Beca economic consumption of this incident, Garvey eyes were open to all of the racial discrimination surrounding him.Also because of this incident, he was no long close to any white people and racism and inequality became prevalent forces in Marcuss aliveness. As far as on the job(p) Marcus as forced to work in labor because his parents were intellectuals, and the work was not cut out for then in the industrial country of Jamaica. Marcus and his sister, Indiana were forced to work in hallow for the family to have enough money to su rvive. In the 1910s Marcus made a name for himself in Jamaica as an accomplished printer, writer, and politician.He joined The National Club, which was the number one organization in Jamaica that introduced anti-colonial thinking into Jamaica. In inequality that Marcus encountered in the arena outside of lower schools in Jamaica of inequality and hatred for erosiveamoor men. He then unconquerable to leave Jamaica to see if blacks were treated the corresponding care in other countries. For the next two years Garvey decided to pass around Central America to experience the black condition in several countries. Throughout his traveling experience he realize that the same conditions he found in Jamaica were the same as the ones in Central America.He then decided to go further and decided to go a visit England. However, he was pleasantly surprised. In this peculiar(a) the blacks in England were segregated like in the west. Later in life Marcus decided to touch on to the United States after the UNIA was established in Jamaica. Garvey matte the need that he needed to start a branch in Harlem to promote is ideas in the United States. Garvey saw Africa as having fallen from a past magnificence that had to be restored for peoples of African descent to resume their rightful(prenominal) place in the realism. Such redemption could only be achieved by black peoples themselves.After his idea remain the same , he started advocating the ideas of black. nationalists that some blacks should move back to Africa, in order to protect Africa from imperialism. Garvey took action to begin to stock blacks back to Africa. He started the Black Star Shipping Company in 1919. The company took two boatloads of people to Liberia, but had to stop after management problems. This has been coined the back to Africa movement. (UCLA) However, Garveys intent with the back to Africa movement was not to widen all blacks back to Africa.Rather, he thought that a strong African center of black power would protect blacks all over the world from imperialism. The UNIA in the United States attracted a very large following. The membership was in the millions. The ideology of the UNIA attracted a strong working class following. The fraternal tonicity and self-help ideas attracted many blacks that felt as if whites would never change to the point of equality. The working class felt the pressure of oppression most of all African-Americans. in that location was a small following from the black intelligentsia, but the majority of them followed W.E. B. Dubois and the NAACP. The unearthly content of the UNIA also appealed very strongly to people. UNIA meetings were structured like church services with prayers, services, and singing. Garvey told followers to reject the white image of Jesus and perfection.. The religion gave followers an even stronger sense of brotherhood and pride. The UNIA also had a womens chapter, so it attracted a strong womens following as well The UNI A appealed broadly across the African-American community through the use fraternity, religion, ideology, and an appeal to women.Garvey saw Africa as having fallen from a past greatness that had to be restored for peoples of African descent to resume their rightful place in the world. Such redemption could only be achieved by black peoples themselves In the early 1920s is when the struggle for African American was real. During this succession is when thrall was abolished, blacks were still oppresses and they were still no way equal to whites. However black people were staring to make some progress towards racial equality. During this time was a strong African American movement to further the black race.A prominent movement was lead by W. E. B Dubious. His focus was on education blacks to create quality. However on the other hand from the governmental spectrum was a man by the name of Marcus Garvey. In his movement he led the movement for blacks to unite as a race against oppressio n. The reason has a strong impact on his belief which acted as particle accelerator for his lifes work. The involvement has a strong influence on the black population and the African-American civil rights movement of the 1920s.Marcus Garvey grew up in poverty, surrounded by the struggle of blacks to gain political, economic, and social equality. He prone his lifes work to end of these struggles. He developed a set of beliefs that influenced many people and encouraged many blacks to put by extra effort to get ahead. Marcus Garvey and the UNIA is the largest African-American movement to date. Garveys legacy has also been manifest in the careers of leaders ranging from Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana to Malcolm X in the United States.Borne along on the tide of black popular culture, Garveys memory has attained the status of a folk myth. He is routine celebrated and recreated as a hero through the storytelling faculty of the black oral tradition. As the embodiment of that oral tradition tr ansmuted into musical performance, Jamaicas reggae music exhibits an amazing fixation with the memory of Garvey. Re-evoking spiritual exile and the past experience of black dispossession, the music of such performers as Bob Marley, quill Tosh, and Burning Spear presents a Garvey who speaks from the past directly to the present.The result at once is that the legend of Garvey functions as an icon of universal black pride and asseveration Reference Garvey, Marcus. The UNIA Papers Project. http//www. isop. ucla. edu/mgpp/lifesamp. htm. 1925 Sewell, Tony. Garveys Children The Legacy of Marcus Garvey. TrentonAfrica manhood Press, Inc. , 1990. Stein, Judith. The World of Marcus Garvey Race and Class in Modern Society. Baton Rouge lanthanum State UP, 1986
Saturday, January 26, 2019
The calling card of Aldermen of the Hayville approved the Appropriations budget for its General Fund for the year ending celestial latitude 31 as shown below.1) Explain the legal significance of an appropriation and wherefore attenders engaged for a pecuniary and compliance audit need to have sex the meaning of the term.An appropriation is an authorization for administrators to incur on behalf of the political building block liabilities in the amounts specified in the appropriation ordinance or statute, for the purposes lop forth in that ordinance or statute, during the period of time specified. The auditor must attempt to ascertain that there were no material expenditures in violation of the appropriation ordinance or resolution.2) It is illegal for a governmental unit to spend money for any purpose unless a validated appropriation for that purpose exists. Does this legal rule assure good financial management for each governmental unit? Why or why not?Not necessarily. If th e appropriation budget is prepared mechanically (with in truth little thought as to what services should be rendered and how the services should be delivered) adhering to the budget may be poor financial management. On the former(a) hand, if the budget relates input of resources to output of services, that have been well planned to visualize clearly specified objectives, adhering to the budget should be good financial management.4) embellish a form of Appropriations, Expenditures, and Encumbrances subsidiary ledger account that would provide the entropy needed by a government finance director to rag sure legal requirements concerning appropriations are complied with.Students should present a form equal to Illustration 3-7 (in the text) in answer to this requirement. (Wilson and Kattelus, 2003, p. 76)
Wednesday, January 23, 2019
I. INTRODUCTIONNestl Filipinos, Inc. (NPI) is a leading manufacturer of food and beverage in the Philippines. It was established in the country in the early 1930s, initially as a trading caller. By the year 1962, it formed a articulation venture with San Miguel Corporation (SMC), a come with specializing in brewing with ample interests in agribusiness and food outputs. In 1996, San Miguels Magnolia Foods Division had been structured with Nestl. It produced and change outputs wish well Magnolia ice creams and tetra pack juices, Bear Brand and gillyf press down condensed milk, Bertolli one-time(prenominal)as and tomato sauce, Maggi seasonings, pasta and mayonnaise, and Smarties candies.Nestls Instant confound Division produced and interchange Nescaf, Nestea, Milo, Coffee Mate and Milkmaid powdered milk. Nestl Philippines is ranked number 10 among Nestl subsidiaries worldwide and number 3 in Asia-Pacific, behind Japan and Australia. Nestl is the lone(prenominal) foreign-ow ned cocoa producer in the Philippines. Nescaf already a household trope in the Philippines needs to respond to major changes in the environment. Competing cracks like enormous Taste and Nescafs ne best competitor, Blend 45 already let down or ar planning to reduce their expenditures.There are excessively major changes in Government Regulation, Imports and Market Entry resulting to the potential access of foreign brands like kraft paper General Foodss maxwell tolerate and Procter & Gambles Folgers Coffee. The company needs to decide whether it should importinging Arabica beans for blending verify Roaster burnt umber, change the composition of Nescaf by importing Arabica beans to the alike(p) composition as those sell abroad, and whether it should continue producing Tasters quality which are made from Philippine- prominent Robusta and Imported Arabica.II. STATEMENT OF FACTSNestls Instant Drink Division contributes 75% of the companys total gross r all the sameue Ne scaf contributes 53% of the department sales. In 1996, Nescafs commercialise share developmentd from 52% to 66%. Nestl have 40 independently-owned warehouses located throughout the Philippines. These warehouses, along with cc salespersons cater 20,000 dealers who had accounts with Nestl, with locate access for orders and credit lines. The companys employment facilities however are already strained to the limit. The company spent 5% of sales on advertising and promotion of Nescaf which includes decorative streamers and raffle draws. The company also offered volume bonus discounts. According to mart research, the bonus promotions are Nestls most effective promotional offering.However, Nestl doesnt buy ledge space, which is a honey oil practice in the Philippines and early(a) Asian countries. or else it prefers rental of special uncover space for promotion, which is occupyed as the most dear(predicate) real estate in the Philippines. There is a significant increase in the number of households that purchased deep brown within two weeks, from 67% in 1974, to 96% in 1995. This is collectible to the relatively high usage of 1.7 gram foil packs in the Philippines. These 1.7 gram private packs contribute 8% of Nescafs sales. Coffee is typically drunk with sugar and without milk or non-dairy whiteners. However, on that point is a 350% increase in the use of much(prenominal) whiteners over the past decade. The Carnation brand which produces whiteners, condensed milk and powdered milk is owned by Nestl. One of the reasons behind the rapid increase in volume and merchandise share is the fall of green coffee bean prices two in the world commercialise place and Philippines.The price of green coffee beans, where Nestl sourced all its coffee fell by 50% these beans comprised about 30% of the delivery costs. Nestl and other producers are able to lower their prices because of the savings. Another reason is the introduction of cheaper packaging. Bottles t ouch on up 30% of the total cost. Hence, coffee sold on bottles are more expensive at PHP 26.25 for a 50-gram pack while those in foil packaging are sold only at PHP 20.45. look by Nestl shows that its merchandise place share is highest in small stores located in large cities. Conversely, among small stores, its market share is highest outside big cities. mountain outside big cities prefer to shop in sari-sari stores. The prices of commodities sold in sari-sari stores are 15% higher than in supermarkets outside big cities and 20% higher than those in big cities.Over the past decade, other producers, who sold their coffee 10% at a lower place the price of Nescaf, entered the market. Nescaf gradually lost market share from 75% in 1965, to 60% in 1975, and finally, 55% in 1985. However, there was a decline in coffee prices in the 1980s, good-looking Nestl a window to reduce its prices to within 5% of its competitors and still keep up its margins. Other major producers of coffee in the Philippines include Blend 45 which has 15% market share in 1996, Great Taste with 10% market share, Kafe de Oro with 6% market share and Caf Filipino which has 3% market share. The Gokongwei Groups Blend 45 employs a cheaper blend of coffee and carbohydrates. In 1996, they dropped the price of Blend 45.They are sold 28% below Nestls price and 20% below most of the other brands sold in the market. So far the price increase made no significant effect yet on the market share of Nescaf. prior to 1996, the import of coffee beans, each unprocessed or processed is prohibited. whole of the coffee sold within the Philippines had to be produced within the country. The quality of Robusta beans giving in the country was of international quality. On the other hand, the quality of Arabica beans was of inferior quality. Consequently, Nestl used deoxycytidine monophosphate% Robusta unlike those processed in the U.S. or atomic number 63 which are blends. Nestls Master Roaster coffee is made from topically grown Robusta and Arabica beans. Tasters Choice, on the other hand is made from locally grown Robusta and imported Arabica. In 1996, the Philippine Government committed beneath GATT and WTO to remove import prohibitions on agricultural products. Hence, a Minimum admission fee Volume (MAV) was set. Imports of green and roasted beans and packaged products are charged a tariff of 30% while those outside the MAV are charged coke%.The government, however committed to increase the MAV and reduce the tariff in imports both within the MAV and outside it. Nestl is facing the threat of importers, both from the U.S. and regional coffee producers. One of which is Indonesias Indocaf which already begun intersection in Malaysia and exporting to Vietnam and is rumored to tog in China and export to the Philippines. Indocaf is sold 10% below the price of Nescaf in both markets. It has backward integration with its own coffee plantations so it was buffered from price swin gs. Another doable importer is Singapores Supermix who pioneered in individual 3-in-1 packs within Singapore and in other nearby countries. In the 1990s, the Philippine Government liberalized regulations on Foreign Direct Investments.Prior to that, investments with sales direct to domestic market had to be 40% Filipino-owned. In 1992, the government allowed 100% foreign ownership in most industries. As a result, Kraft General Foods which had substantial outturn operations in the Philippines is rumored to produce Maxwell House within the country. Procter & Gamble which also had substantial production in the Philippines also announced that it would produce Folgers Coffee in the country.IV. selection COURSES OF ACTIONOne of the possible alternative courses of action is to increase the production capacity of Nestls facilities. Upgrading the capacity would enable Nestl to experiment on product development without the possible reduction of Nescafs already established market share. H owever, the upgrade would require $3 million worth of investments. Another possible option is to focus substantial amount of investment for the marketing and sales of Master Roaster coffee which is currently made up of locally produced Robusta and Arabica. Nestl could both import Arabica beans to improve the taste of Master Roaster, which is now possible due to the major changes in import regulation.The brand would cater Nestls high-end consumers. However, it would reduce the companys current production capacity of the current blends. Lastly, Nestl could turn the Nescaf and use imported Arabica and locally produced Robusta to copy the foreign blend. This would make Nescaf a high-end product which could match imported brands. Again, this is possible because of the favorable changes in import regulation. However, this modification might result in Nescaf losing significant amount of market share and household penetration. V. CONCLUSIONTo react to the major changes in the environment, Nestl should lower the price of Nescaf closer to its competitors. According to research, there is a direct blood between coffee prices and household penetration. Hence, the price reduction would make the product take down more accessible to the masses. In return, the company would gain even higher market share. In response to the threats of the entry of imported brands in the country, Nestl should continue producing Tasters Choice and discontinue the unsuccessful Master Roaster. Tasters Choice would both accommodate a shed light on market segment and the increasing import mentality of Filipinos. Importation of either Arabica beans or finished product is possible because of the changes in import regulation. Lastly, Nestl should consider buying shelf spaces. Besides the fact that it is a proven and common practice not only in the Philippines but also in other Asian countries, it is more economical than renting special display spaces. Nonetheless, Nestl should only lessen, not stop renting special display spaces.VI. reposition MANAGEMENTIn order to sustain the changes made, Nestl should explore the use even cheaper packaging materials. The savings, in turn would enable the company to reduce the prices of Nescaf. The company should also actively promote its 1.7 gram individual packs and 3-in-1 packs. This would result to the brand gaining more market penetration, translating to a better market position. It should also precipitously promote both Nescaf and Tasters Choice which satisfies different market segments. VII. RECOMMENDATIONNestl should engage in more product development activities, like for example new flavors of coffee. Considering it is a multinational company, it will have the avail of increased awareness in the current trends abroad. A development in the existing product lines would not only generate more market shares but also create new market segments. Filipinos would accept the inclination of these improvements because of their import m entality.However, there should be enough market research regarding such improvements to make sure they are feasible in the Philippine setting. Also, Nestl should capitalise on its strength of having close relationships with its farmers. It should procure its raw materials in a manner that would benefit farmers. There should be more capacity building trainings among its coffee suppliers in order to promote increased productivity.
Tuesday, January 22, 2019
Susan s alsod shortness of breathbing quietly in a toilet cubicle. She waited for the pounding footsteps to die a commission sooner emerging. Cautiously she gazed extinct of the entrance and then turned to face the dirty mirrors in nominal head of her. She gently prodded the skin below her swelling left-hand(a) eye and flinched with pain. On examining her face she byword that as well as the blotchy red ink that appears on your face after shouting the beginnings of contuse were also emerging. She comprehend footsteps approaching and ran quickly back into the cubicle and locked the admission.Susan Susan are you in present? c entirelyed a voice softly, Its me, Nadine.The door to the cubicle opened slowly and Susan emerged.Oh my beau ideal exclaimed Nadine, I perceive them laughing and talking except I didnt deliberate theyd actually done any matter Are you ok? Does it hurt?Im fine snapped Susan It doesnt subject now any charge. Do you have any foundation? I cant let Mom and Dad see this.Yeah, yeah of course I do murmured Nadine she had given up trying to persuade Susan to branch her parents close the bullies a long time ago. Nadine delved into her bag and pulled turn up a stick of foundation. The twain female childs went everywhere the afternoons march onings as Susan carefully applied foundation to c everyplace the injure which was now a shade of red on her pale face. By the time she was finished the bell had rung and it was lunchtime.Susan and Nadine said goodbye and Susan left for home.Susan? Is that you? she heard her starts voice sing from the nonplusting room.Yeah, I wasnt feeling too good so I came home. Susan mumbled.You should have called and asked me to pick you up her draw replied sharply, We bought you that mobile phone for a reason.Susan, who was still paying in the hallway, hadnt told her parents round the gang of girls who tormented her. Therefore they did not know that her new Nokia phone had been stolen from her bag last week and by now had probably been exchange on to someone for half the price Susans parents had paid for it.Susan? Come sit in here with me and Ill make you a nice cup of camomile tea.No its ok mom, Susan wondered why camomile tea was her mothers answer for everything, I think Ill just go lie in my room for a while Ive got a really bad head get. And with that Susan trudged upstairs.Susan Nadines on the phone her mother called upstairs sometime posterior.Susan padded across the hallway and picked up the reference wrick in her parents room she spoke to Nadine and assured her that she was all right, whilst firing over the days events in her head. She had not gone big bucks for dinner that evening and had called hello to her father from the top of the stairs when he arrived home from work so that he would not get suspicious.Half an hour later Susan had hung up the phone and was trying to do a little fiat for the GCSEs she had coming up later that year however her thoughts continued to give to the bullies.She wondered what would happen if she told her parents of the suffering she had endured due to her persecutors. She could imagine her mothers reaction, a completely over the top drama queen act during which she would insist on liberation directly to talk to the headmaster in whose awayice she would continually sob about her daughters anguish and demand justice as though it were a court room. Her father on the other hand would evidence her to stand up for herself and fight back.Youre a big girl now. He would tell her in that patronising tone of voice she knew so well, You cant continue to affirm upon your mother and I to fight your battles for you. You have simply got to stand up for yourself.Yeah, a fat lot of good telling them would do she told herself to begin with falling in a fitful sleep.The next morning she heard her mother come bustling into the bedroom,How are feeling today heartfelt? she asked in that singsong tone of voice that got o n Susans nerves.Remembering what had happened the previous(prenominal) day Susan quickly drew her head under her covers and told her mother in a muffled voice that she was feeling no better still agreed to have some to-dofast and asked for a head ache t fittedt. As soon as her mom left the room Susan clambered out of her bed and looked into the mirror that hung above her dressing table. The bruising was not as bad as it had looked like it was going to be yesterday although, it was good-for-naught under her eye and along the left side of her face. Susan scurried into the bathroom, foundation in hand. By the time she went downstairs for breakfast it was impossible to see the bruising.Susan took that Friday off and by the time Monday morning arrived the violent wave of purple bruising was almost gone. Nadine arrived at Susans house at 8-30am on Monday morning so that the ii friends could walk to school together.I thought I was never gonna get out of there exclaimed Susan as she lo cked the front gate on her way out.Did they not notice the bruising at all? Nadine asked smell at Susans face, Susan had covered it with foundation and you couldnt tell there were any attach on her face whatsoever.Nope. And even if they did they didnt say anything to me.The girls walked in silence until they reached the school. Susan froze outside.Itll be fine. They wont say anything. Nadine assured her. Yeah, itll be fine. Echoed Susan, speaking more to herself then Nadine.Susan walked into her allowance class and immediately she saw them, Lauren and Sophie glared at her as she marched purposefully to her teachers desk, taking out the note her mother had written Susan handed it to Mrs. Fraeser and sat down at her seat beside Nadine.Susan felt that the next few weeks were fairly manageable, the dickens bullies did not go out of their way to intimidate her. Instead they stuck to down in the mouth things, tripping her in hallways and throwing Polos at her, but she was able to co pe with all the little things that Sophie and Lauren did to put her down. Soon, Susan found that she was feeling better than she had done in a long while, the bruising had completely vanished and she and Nadine were getting along fine. wholeness Friday morning about four weeks after returning to school Susan and Nadine logical to go shopping in town.Ill pick you up at about 10am tomorrow morning called Nadine as the bell signalling the end of the lunch break rang.Ok was Susans reply as she gathered her bag and made her way out of the toilets.She felt someone bump into her and glanced up to apologise when she saw Sophie and Lauren standing in front of the door. Susan straightened up and looked about her, the three of them were unaccompanied except for a girl who was applying make-up at the sink. Hastily Susan grabbed her things and headed for the door but before she got there she felt someone grab her close to by the arm, spinning round she saw Sophies leering face.You Lauren call ed to the little girl at the sink, Get outThe girl looked up questioningly but left the bathroom anyway.Long time, no see. Wouldnt you say so? muttered Sophie, fasten her grip.Let me go said Susan through gritted teeth.Now, now. Lauren chided sarcastically Thats no way to talk is it? Not very nice at all.Let me go Ill scream if I have to. Susans voice was becoming high-pitched and her eye were filling with tears.Ooh Poor ickle baby gonna have a cry. Here, Ill give you something to cry about. Muttered Sophie letting go of Susans arm and punching her.Susan tried to hit back but the two bullies wouldnt back off, Susan felt the punches and kicks rain down on her body. She sank to the background signal but Lauren pulled her back to her feet.No, were going to do it properly this time she yelled banging Susans head on the tiled walls.after that Susan could not tell how many times she was punched and she felt as if there were more than two people hitting her, suddenly she felt someone gra b her throat and felt her head bang off something solid. She slumped to the ground and felt warm, steaming blood running down the back of her neck and the last thing she heard before slipping out of consciousness was the sound of jape and running footsteps.It was a few hours later when she woke up in a hospital room and heard her fathers voice,Susan? How do you feel? he asked.Ive got a headache. Susan answered groggily, looking around her. Immediately a nurse bustled into the room and began fluffing pillows and checking Susans pupils and pulse.After the nurse left Susan saw her mother sitting in a chair at the foot of the bed.Were so sorry that we let this happen to you. But youve got a very good friend who told us what has been going on. Said her mother with tears in her eyes. At that Nadine stepped in from coffin nail the curtains and smiled at Susan.Theyre going to be expelled, Theyre never gong to be able to get at you again. Nadine said approaching Susans bed and squeezing h er hand.Susan nodded before finally falling into a much yearned for peaceful slumber.
Monday, January 21, 2019
In a sentence of political, economic, and social unrest, a bracing way of protest was beginning to emerge from Jamaica in the form of reggae harmony. It was 1963 when a young man from Jamaica by the name of Robert Nesta Marley, better known as tag Marley, formed a band called The Wailers, who would undoubtedly become ace of the only reggae bands to rise up from the oppression of the third world commonwealth. The country of Jamaica had just gained independence from the U.K. in 1962, provided was anything exactly a liberal nation. Those in power chose to exploit the countrys few master(prenominal) exports, primarily bauxite, a mineral used in the process of manufacturing aluminum. The commencement ceremony ten years of Jamaican independence saw considerable economic growth, but these gains were held back from the countrys urban poor. From his book, Reggae, Rastafari, and the Rhetoric of complaisant Control, Stephen A. King writes, After independence, the Jamaican Labor Pa rtys quin Year Plan did not produce economic prosperity but, instead, lighten greater inequity of living conditions (47). King quotes Adam Kuper, As the Jamaican Labor Party encouraged foreign countries to invest in and have kittens Jamaicas manufacturing and bauxite industries, the traditional pursuits of agriculture, forestry, and fishing dropped to a low of 10 per centum of Jamaicas gross domestic product in 1968 (47). Marley chose to join the Rastafarian movement, a religious program that was a prominent group in Jamaica. The Rastafarian faith helped to fuel Marleys purpose in music, which was to seat and inspire those who were being kept down by the nations wealthier class. A trivial rural village called Nine Miles located in the parish of Sainte Ann is where sour grass Marley was born. Marley lived with his grandparents in the community of Sainte Anne, people who followed traditions they had learned from their early African ancestors. These customs included storytelli ng which would be virtuoso of Marleys signature qualities during his songwriting career.When Marley was a teenager, his mother decided to take him away from Sainte Anne, and moved him to Jamaicas detonating device Kingston in the vicinity of impinge township. This would be where Marley would begin to congeal down on his musical journey. Like approximately urban Jamaican cities, Trench town was poor and all of its inhabitants including the teenage Marley lived in poverty. During this time Marley learned how to defend himself against the rough town locals, and instead of following them Marley decided to pass closer attention to music. As one author writes, Despite the poverty, discouragement and various unsavory activities that sustained some ghetto dwellers, Trench Town was in like manner a culturally rich community where Bob Marleys rich musical talents were nurtured. A lifelong source of inspiration, Bob immortalized Trench Town in his songs No Woman No Cry (1974), T rench Town Rock (1975) and Trench Town, the latter released posthumously in 1983 (Ruff, Bobs Early Life). Marleys beginnings in the music manufacturing were with a form of music known as ska. Ska came about in Jamaica during the late 1950s and early 60s. Ska was inspired by American R&B music that could be heard with U.S. radio airways on the transistor radio. Ska was a blending of Americas R&B and Jamaicas island beat, a mixture of calypso and mento. Author Stephen A. King writes, Perhaps ska can best be characterized as a product of creolization, borrowing heavily from black American music (jazz, gospel, and R&B), while also incorporating indigenous (mento) and African elements into its hard (24). Many citizens of Jamaica could not afford radios to listen to music or clutches up on any news reports coming from the island. So the Jamaican sound systems, mobile devices much(prenominal) as vans or musical equipment on wheels, would be used to host dances, and the deejay s would also use their sound systems to certify his listeners on political happenings. King states that, As one of the few low-priced social activities for the poor, the sound system brought music to slips where the voice of the poor could be heard without interference by local authorities (16). Like most of the world during this time, the black population was not allowed any political power, and galore(postnominal) began to seek ways to resist.One of the methods used as a essence to passively difference of opinion back against the imbalance was the Rastafarian godliness. The Rastafarian religion was born early in the twentieth century, but its roots betrothal back as far as the late 1800s when slaves tangle compelled to revolt against the plantation owners on the belief that God was calling them to fight for freedom. In 1927, a man named Marcus Garvey brought forth to Jamaicans the basis of the Rastafarian religion, which was to search to Africa for the crowning of a mal e monarch. This would be a sign for Jamaica that freedom is near. From Africana, the cyclopedia of the African and the African-American Experience, author Roanne Edwards quotes Garvey Look to Africa for the crowning of a king to know that your redemption is nigh (Edwards 1592). In 1930 Ras Tafari was crowned emperor butterfly of Ethiopia and baptized with the name Haile Selassie. From that moment on the Rastafarians of Jamaica would recognize the king of Ethiopia as the living messiah. The religion of Rastafarianism was meant to empower Jamaicas black population by reflecting heavily on African heritage and believed that the western society was instantlys kingdom of Babylon, a corrupt city that profited from the oppressed. Part of the Rastafarian faith was to grow dreadlocks, this would become one of Marleys signature features, but Marley was not following any trends, his purpose for wearing his hair in dreadlocks had deeper meaning than mere fashion. As quoted from Rolling St one, Until Babylon fell, according to one story the Rastas would not cut their hair. They grew it long in a fearsome expression called dreadlocks (Gilmore 5). Another element from the Rastafarian Movement was the use of cannabis to make believe a deeper connection with Selassie. Marley used marijuana as a yeasty outlet in songwriting and Marley, along with many Rasta musicians, followed the ritual of smoking marijuana or ganja for this uncanny experience.Marleys songs came from a deep spiritual determination, to spread the gist of the Rastafarian faith and to fight against those who sought to put down the poor and less fortunate of the world. According to author Rex Ruff, Bob Marley reaffirms his adherence to Rastafari on Forever Loving Jah from Uprising the final record album released during his lifetime. Uprising features the acoustic Redemption Song which implores the listener emancipate yourselves from psychogenic slavery none but ourselves can free our mind, reiteratin g the self-empowering convictions that Rastafarian tenets have sought to establish (Bob and Rastafarian Beliefs). The poor of Jamaica were subject to red because of the decisions that were being made by the political parties put in place after Jamaica had become a free nation. On one hand, at that place was the Peoples content Party, led by Michael Manley, who fought for constitutional rights, and on the other hand, thither was the Jamaican Labor Party, led by Edward Seaga, who desired to put Jamaicas capital interests abroad before the welfare of the nation. Both the Peoples National Party and the Jamaican Labor Party were primarily quarter by white members and Marley took neither side, but was said to have small favor towards Michael Manleys Peoples National Party. In 1976 the celestial latitude elections were drawing near and violent protests were taking over the streets of Kingston. Marley had become such a prominent idol for Jamaican citizens and the Peoples National Pa rty thought a project performed by Marley would help console the city during the election. Marley agreed to perform with his band The Wailers at the Smile Jamaica concert.Although Marley had evince political neutrality, some believed that Marley had favor for Michael Manleys side. During rehearsal, just two years before the concert, Marley and some members of his band were shot at. No one tortuous in the shooting were killed, but both Marley and his manager at the time suffered injuries. Marley went on to perform at the Smile Jamaica concert to keep the peace, but fled the country immediately after the show ended. After the Smile Jamaica concert Marley performed again at the One Love Peace concert where he persuaded Michael Manley and Edward Seaga up on the stage to shake hands. This concert symbolized Marleys truthful desire for peace and harmony between the political parties of Jamaicas new government. As Gilmore writes, On April 22nd, at the One Love Peace Concert, Marley m anaged to tattle both Michael Manley and Edward Saga onstage with him and held their hands together with his in a motility of coexistence (Gilmore 9). Marley died of cancer at the young age of 36, but his music is still alive and reaches hundreds of people every single day. One of the things that made Marleys music so effective was his ability to speak an intense message through and through a creative melody. From Rolling Stone, He was a magnificent melody writer, and his songs insinuating pop hooks pull the listener into the realities Marley was describing (Gillmore 12). Although much of the Marley bequest lives on in America as a mere trend, one who chooses to look deeper into his message will feel the power Marley had intended through his poetry that was meant for an oppressed nation.
Friday, January 18, 2019
Research has found that an estimated fifty million minutes of world(prenominal) long distance telephone calls originate from Belize each year. The politics has aimed to learn that consumers soak up lower prices, higher quality services, wider array of service choices, and asseverate of the art technology. It also seeks to improve the force of numerous business ventures which would despatch the economy of the rural bea. An improved telecoms infrastructure go away also increase the aim of foreign coronation.The telecommunications celestial sphere has been constrained by limited financial energyiness to invest in development of new infrastructure (Fox 103, 2007). As a plead run institution, BTL has found it difficult to maintain a state of the art telecommunications network. Satellite, cellular, and information technologies are changing at a rapid rate. Belize already faces several disadvantages as compared with its neighbors because it is losing aspiration in terms o f cellular teledensity. It also has the greatest unsatisfied stick for services and the longest median(a) wait for installation of telephone lines.It also suffers from a disadvantage in terms of the number of lines per employee and train of investment per employee. BTL has invested twenty dollars in telecommunications for all inhabitant. Other countries with similar economic levels have invested two to ten multiplication higher. The country has annually invested less in telecommunication than the amount compulsory to maintain the veritable level of personal welfare enjoyed. The low investment rate has take a crapd several problems for BTL (Fox 103, 2007. Research conducted for a group of Belizeans determined that 40 share of the participants had no idea about the telecommunication reforms.Twenty percent claimed that brass plans to reform the telecommunication celestial sphere would fail. The government aims to ensure that the demand for telecom services will increase if the level of services is upgraded and modernized. The country aims to privatize and liberalize the sector which would give an incentive for private organizations to appropriate services in remote areas of the country. Numerous communities in Belize do not have access to adequate telecommunication services. Private companies have been selected to smash for customers who would provide a large number of citizens with the opportunity to obtain telecommunications services.The habitual Utilities Commission which was formed in the late 1990s regulates the telecommunications industry in Belize. It has worked with the government to develop a constitution framework for the telecommunications sector. This policy is the proximo blueprint and development of the industry (Cronin 31, 2007). The Belize Telecommunications Act was passed in 2002 which allowed all manifests, permits, and liberty for operating until the expiry of previous licenses. This act allows the development of the telecom munications industry by the system of competition.It has granted two licenses to the Belize Telecommunications Limited and International Telecommunications Limited. An individual license was also provided to Speednet Communications Limited. The PUC has granted an estimated twenty licenses for internet service providers, data networks, and private domestic networks (Cronin 32, 2007). The PUC has also allowed the improvement in the set of rules and software package applications to improve the quality of communications. Belize has not managed to open its telecommunications securities industry to competition and privatization.As a solving it has been experiencing slower sector growth and higher prices as compared with its neighbors. High prices and the slow rate of innovation have been identified as being responsible for the slow pace of development (Cronin 29, 2007). There are also limited opportunities for entrepreneurial initiatives. The new government aims to properly throw and implement reforms in the telecommunications sector. It requires political will and capacity to reform which would uphold in the development of the telecommunications sector.It also requires the need for clear policies and basic rules of the game. The policy for licensing new companies must be clear as it would ensure that the sector structure is secure in the future. The pricing rules must be wholesome defined which would allow firm numbers and simple formulas for automatic adjustments to hold for several years. Anformer(a) requirement is the powers of the regulatory authority and the decision reservation processes will be used in interactions with regulators. Credible and stable sector policies and rules are another objective of the government.They aim to create a all-embracing consensus on the reform package (Cronin 30, 2007). Another important step is the government seeks to add credibility to the reform process by relating the process to its success. genuine telecommunicat ions laws also need to be implemented according to the objectives of the new government. The current legislation needs to be upgraded so that it can assist in telecommunication reforms in Belize. A major task of the Belizean government has been to create credibility for its telecommunications reform policy.Private investors believe that the absence of credibility would result in the risk of expropriation and having investors taken hostage in terms of the top executive of the government to force utilities to charge unprofitable rates for their services. While the government wants to encourage private investment, it must create an institutional arrangement that limits their stimulate ability to behave opportunistically once private telecom operators undertake their investments. The humankind of regulatory bodies creates questions concerned with accountability and autonomy.Empirical studies that have studied the Belizean telecommunication sector have tried to explain the partial tel ecommunications reforms or the make of political and institutional variables on network deployment. Research has explored how new political institutions measured by index of checks and balances affect the long run level of penetration in Belize (Cronin 39, 2007). Political limits have a hard and incontrovertible relationship with the growth of main lines. It highlights the importance of policy for promoting steady and strong incentives to private investors in a sector where opportunistic behavior might be expected.Other researchers studied the effects of telecommunications regulation and political variables in which they found that these variables help explain the level of network elaborateness. A bettor and specific regulatory environment leads to greater investments in telecommunications. Ownership and competition by private investors tend to create favorable environment for the expansion of telecommunications. Regulation helps assist the private firms that enter the telecomm unications sector of Belize.Research conducted for the golf links between privatization and network expansion found that privatization is strongly linked with the efficiency and reliability of the telecommunications sector. Competition a major variable can have a positive effect on the telecommunication sector. Regulation is as yet considered to negative with relation to network expansion. Regulatory environment constitutes an important cypher for private organizations that seek to operate in Belize. Strategic decisions made by companies can be linked with traditional economic factors and regulatory conditions.The motion of the telecom industry affects and is affected by the political and regulatory decisions. Privatization, loosening and regulatory enhancement are linked and influence each other in the success of the telecom industry (Cronin 69, 2007). Belizean telecommunications market is an emerging market which is considered risky by major telecom operators. It also suffers from volatility because of the exposure of the economy to market fluctuations. Consumers in Belize are also sensitive to prices scour during the times of economic boom. Low prices and regulations make Belize an unattractive option for westbound telecom companies.Despite major bills and reforms, the sector continues to be dominated by the BTL. Belize Telemedia retains its monopoly and hegemony over the telecommunication sector. It is also favorably supported by the government which continues to provide economic assistance to the company. The sluggish capital market and uncertainty about future economic development in Belize means that carriers will prefer technology that makes the most of existing infrastructure. This will increase the sales opportunities with products that offer reliable and efficient service.
Thursday, January 17, 2019
INVESTIGACION COMERCIAL SUAVIZANTES INDICE Suavizantes ?Por que este producto? El hecho de escoger este producto check bit realizar una investigacion comercial acerca del mismo se debe a varias circunstancias hace anos quizas nosotros no teniamos en cuenta la manera ni los medios de como realizar las t theatre of opeproportionnss domesticas. Pero si teniamos claro que el paintr y el olor de la ropa que nos lavaban en casa nos re hearfortaba, nos daba sensacion de limpieza y sensacion de estar cerca de nuestro hogar.Despues de haber vivido algunos anos en residencia y haber sentido que nuestras prendas no nos aportaban las sensaciones que nos aportaban cuando estabamos en casa y una vez viviendo en piso nos preocupamos por la eleccion de los productos de limpieza. Ademas ahora somos nosotros quien nos realizamos estas labores. El suavizante es un producto que ademas de ser imprescindible space-reflection symmetry shortservar la ropa nos podemos decantar por el por el olor que nos o frecen, la sensacion de frescor y limpieza y la facilidad que este producto nos aporta a la hora de encargarnos del planchado.Puesto que el suavizante ayuda a que las arrugas de la ropa sean menores que las que tendriamos en las prendas de ropa si no utilizaramos este producto. A hooktinuacion vamos a realizar un analisis del suavizante. Investigando las marcas que podemos en victimizetrar en este mercado, los establecimientos que lo ofrecen y como se comportan los rip offsumidores al adquirir este producto. El producto Un suavizante textil es un producto que se utiliza comunmente en el proceso de lavado de ropa.El suavizante se comercializa disuelto en agua y se anade en forma liquida a la lavadora. Los ingredientes mas importantes de los suavizantes password los tensioactivos cationicos, habitualmente del tipo amonio cuaternario. Estos tensioactivos se adhieren a las fibras del tejido, proporcionando suavidad. Proporcionan tambien volumen, esponjosidad y otorgan propiedades an tiestaticas. Hacen que las prendas sean mas faciles de planchar y ayudan a reducir la aparicion de arrugas. Por ultimo, pero no menos importante, los suavizantes aportan a la ropa una agradable fragancia.Un reciente estudio ha puesto de manifiesto que los suavizantes previenen la aparicion de arrugas y facilitan el planchado, pero no tonation aumentan el volumen respecto a un lavado sin suavizante. La industria de los suavizantes esta goldbrickcentrando genus Sus productos cada vez mas. Los suavizantes shrink fromcentra body politic tienen un city manager porcentaje de tensioactivos cationicos. En la actualidad los suavizantes textiles se comercializan short-change una insect bitecentracion de tensioactivos cationicos que oscila entre el 8 y el 15%, en ascertaintraposicion defraud los suavizantes diluidos comercializados durante los anos 90, que tenian una cantidad de materia activa proxima al 5%.Los suavizantes concentrados requieren dosis mas pequenas, ocu trash menos espaci o, es necesario menos plastico space-reflection symmetrytrooper su envasado y al caber mas unidades por camion, emiten menos dioxido de carbono a la atmosfera. Cualidades basicas -Frescura -Suavidad - exituce y facilita al planchado Estas intelligence las cualidades basicas que caracteriza a los suavizantes. Son las cualidades que el consumidor pone como requisito parity adquirir el suavizantes adecuado. ?Por que se debe utilizar suavizante?En la lavadora, lavado tras lavado, las fibras de los tejidos pierden algunas de sus propiedades mecanicas e integridad como consecuencia del intenso estres mecanico al que se ven sometidas y de los efectos quimicos de la dureza del agua. Con el paso del tiempo, las fibras de los tejidos se vuelven asperas y se enredan. Al no the Statesr suavizantes, las fibras permanecen enredadas mientras se secan y las prendas se vuelven mas rigidas. El uso de secadoras de aire inducido ayuda a suavizar la ropa, pero con frecuencia las fibras sinteticas se cargan de electricidad estatica lo que provoca atraccion electroestatica. ResultadosSi se usa un suavizante en el ciclo de aclarado, sus agentes ayudan a mantener la suavidad de las fibras de los tejidos. Esto reduce la friccion de las fibras entre si y de las fibras con la piel del usuario. Cuando las fibras se mueven con mayor libertad, las prendas tienen una mayor suavidad y sufriran un desgaste menor con el paso del tiempo, especialmente las partes con un grado de estres mas alto, como cuellos, codos y punos. La ropa se arruga menos al secarse y resulta mas facil de planchar. Si se usan secadoras, las prendas sinteticas tendran una menor atraccion electroestatica al extraerlas de la secadora.La reduccion de la friccion en la piel y la suavidad de las prendas proporcionan una sensacion habitual de comodidad al usuario. Una caracteristica adicional de los suavizantes para la ropa es que dejan un olor agradable en las prendas lavadas. Los estudios sobre el consumo indican que el olor es con frecuencia el motivo por el que los consumidores eligen una variante o marca determinada frente a otras. Establecimientos TipoSociedad Anonima Fundacion1963 SedeAvenida Raymond Poincare 6 Paris, Francia AdministracionLars Olofsson Ceo IndustriaMinorista Ingresos97,6 billones (2009)Empleados430. 000 FilialesChampion, Ed Shopi, GB, 8 a Huit, Dia Sitio webwww. carrefour. com Datos Relevantes crossover S. A. es una cadena francesa internacional de hipermercados. En el 2009, el grupo poseia 15. 5000 almacenes en 35 paises, tenia mas de 495. 000 empleados Sus ventas consolidadas alcanzaron 108. 629 millones de euros. Su actividad se centra en tres mercados Europa, Asia y America Latina. Siendo de origen frances, el 56% de su negocio se call forth fuera de Francia. El grupo se centra en mercados de gran blowup China, brazil nut, Indonesia, Polonia y Turquia. HistoriaFue en un seminario de Bernardo Trujillo en los Estados Unidos, donde a Marcel Fournier y Denis Defforey les vino la inspiracion. La sociedad crossbreeding fue creada en la Alta Saboya en 1959 por las familias Fournier y Defforey. En 1963, Carrefour invento el concepto de hipermercado, abriendo el fuseo en la Isla de Francia en Sainte-Genevieve-des-Bois. La sociedad se establecio en Belgica en 1969, en Espana en 1973 y en Brasil en 1975. La sociedad Promodis (futura Promodes) se creo en 1961 tras la fusion de las empresas de dos familias normandas de mayoristas dirigidos por Paul-Auguste Halley y Leonor Duval-Lemonnier.El nombre de Carrefour significa cruce de caminos, ya que el primer hipermercado estaba precisamente ubicado en un cruce de caminos. Carrefour y Promodes se fusionaron en 1999 para dar lugar al primer grupo europeo y al segundo grupo mundial de distribucion, despues de Wal-Mart. Dirigida por Jose Luis Duran entre 2005 y finales de 2008. Desde el 1 de enero de 2009 Lars Olofsson, pocedente del grupo Nestle, es el film director planetary. Es posible que el gigante de la d istribucion se desprenda de su filial E. D. y Dia (Espana y Portugal), por un importe cercano a los 5 millardos de euros (5. 00. 000. 000 ). En 1976, lanza una gama de productos la marca de su distribuidor, con un empaquetado muy sobrio y una promocion orientada hacia la composicion con precios permanentes. En 2006 Carrefour cambio la imagen de su marca, la cual tomo un diseno mas atractivo, con envases disenados con colores suaves como el azul, y faciles de identificar. Los nuevos envases cuentan con el logotipo de la empresa, mas grande que antes cuando solo aparecia el nombre Carrefour en una fina banda en la esquina inferior derecha.Bajo el mando del nuevo presidente ejecutivo, Lars Olofsson, la empresa se esta concentrando en cambiar la reputacion del minorista enfocandose en los precios bajos, ya que la cadena es percibida por los consumidores como demasiado cara. Actualmente el grupo Carrefour ocupa el numero 1 en distribucion europea y el 2? del mundo. Cifras En enero de 2 004, las principales insignias del grupo son Hipermercados (5. 000 a 20. 000 m? ) Carrefour Supermercados (1. 000 a 2. 000 m? ) Champion, Carrefour Express, barrio , Supermercados GS, Norte, Supermercados GB Maxidescuento (200 a 800 m? Supermercados Dia, Ed Comercio de proximidad Shopi, Marche Plus, 8 a Huit, Di per Di, Proxi El grupo en el mundo El grupo Carrefour cuenta con establecimientos en 35 paises de Europa, Asia y America Latina. Espana El grupo Carrefour se establecio en Espana en 1973 con los supermercados Pryca. En el 2000 los establecimientos de Continente y Pryca pasaron a formar parte del grupo Carrefour, fusionandose. Los hipermercados de estas empresas pasaron a llamarse Carrefour, los supermercados se pasaron a llamar Champion y en 2005, Maxi Dia y Carrefour Express pasando a desaparecer la denominacion Champion.El Grupo Carrefour tambien posee tiendas pequenas en barrios llamados Dia. Algunos Dia ahora son Maxi Dia (los grandes) y Dia Market (los pequenos). Se encuentran repartidos por toda la geografia espanola Andalucia (Malaga,Cadiz,Granada,Los Barrios,Estepona,Marbella)capital of Spain,Valencia, etcetera Estan presentes en la mayoria de las ciudades espanolas de las 17 Comunidades Autonomas y forman parte del paisaje comercial de vanguardia. Son el banco de pruebas del desarrollo industrial y cuentan con el apoyo de los consumidores espanoles de varias generaciones. Cumplen mas de 36 anos en Espana, y son referentes del formato en la distribucion moderna. 008 cierra el ejercicio con 168 centros bajo la ensena Carrefour. La dimension del area de ventas de los centros abarca desde los 2. 500 m2 de los mini-hiper hasta los mas de 10. 000 m2 del concepto clasico de hipermercado. Motor de los entornos socioeconomicos Dinamizan sus zonas de influencia y agrupan en su rededor polos de atraccion junto con el comercio, la restauracion y los servicios mas vanguardistas de la region, configurando pujantes areas comerciales. Conveniente en precio s y surtido El modelo de Carrefour es aceptado por ofrecer el mayor surtido de calidad a los mejores precios.La libertad de eleccion de productos, marcas y precios convence a los consumidores. Mas de 100. 000 referencias de articulos regionales, nacionales e internacionales, configuran una rica opcion, innovadora y conveniente. Los servicios complementarios de las filiales optimizan el acto de compra. Una atractiva vida comercial en el ano Su amplio desarrollo de alimentacion, bazar, textil y una marcada estacionalidad, convierten el acto de compra en un acontecimiento familiar ludico. Mas de treinta actividades diferentes conviven entre si de manera natural, animadas. SedeCalle Hermosilla n? 112AdministracionIsidoro Alvarez, Presidente IndustriaGrandes Almacenes, Turismo, Servicios ProductosTextil, alimentacion, drogueria, perfumeria, complementos. Agencia de Viajes. Correduria de seguros. Servicios y productos informaticos. MarcasEl Corte Ingles (Alimentacion y Bazar, Cesta estand ar), Hipercor (Alimentacion y Bazar, Cesta estandar), Aliada (Cesta basica). Ingresos17. 362,53 millones (2008) Beneficio Neto382 millones (2008) Empleados97. 389 (2008) FilialesHipercor, Bricor, Supercor, Opencor, Viajes El Corte Ingles, Informatica El Corte Ingles. Sitio webelcorteingles. es hipercor. esEl Corte Ingles es el primer grupo espanol de distribucion y uno de los lideres mundiales de grandes almacenes. Con mas de 70 anos de experiencia, el Grupo ha mantenido desde sus origenes una politica de servicio al cliente y un constante interes por adecuarse a los gustos y las necesidades que demanda la sociedad. Esto le ha llevado a una politica de diversificacion y a la creacion de nuevos formatos comerciales. Ademas de los grandes almacenes El Corte Ingles, el Grupo cuenta con otras cadenas como Hipercor, Opencor, Supercor, Sfera, Telecor, Viajes El Corte Ingles, Bricor, Optica 2000 e Informatica El Corte Ingles, entre otras.El Corte Ingles es igniter uno de los lideres mun diales de grandes almacenes con una fuerte implantacion en el mercado espanol y con presencia en Portugal. Desde que en 1935 el fundador de la compania, Ramon Areces, adquiriera una sastreria denominada El Corte Ingles, la empresa ha mantenido un continuo crecimiento. La politica comercial de la cadena esta basada en cinco grandes pilares que se han hecho extensivos al resto de las empresas del grupo calidad maxima, servicio, surtido, especializacion y garantia.La oferta de los grandes almacenes incluye un amplio abanico de productos y servicios que van desde articulos de ocio y cultura a mobiliario, moda y complementos, electronica de consumo, jugueteria, decoracion, alimentacion, joyeria. Los centros comerciales estan pensados para satisfacer al cliente con una amplia gama de surtido y especialidades, y con la mayor concentracion de oferta de moda femenina, masculina e infantil del mercado. Mas de un millar de firmas presentan cada temporada en los establecimientos sus nuevas tend encias y propuestas.Las mas conocidas marcas nacionales e internacionales, en algunos casos en exclusiva para El Corte Ingles, asi como las firmas de numerosos disenadores y modistos que cuentan con sus propios corners, convierten a El Corte Ingles en una enorme avenida que destaca por la variedad de oferta, la dimension del espacio y la calidad del producto. Clientes El modelo de venta expresado anteriormente sigue siendo valido igniter. Asi en su documento de Responsabilidad mixer Empresarial se senala que los cinco pilares de compromiso con el cliente son Calidad Servicio Surtido Especializacion Garantia Estos cinco pilares han producido una fidelizacion importante de sus clientes y en 2008 sus centros recibieron mas de 600 millones de visitas. Esta fidelizacion se ha producido a pesar de ofrecer precios superiores al resto de competidores, aunque suple este inconveniente mediante la realizacion de ofertas, la induccion a la demanda mediante el esfuerzo publicitario mas grande que realiza cualquier empresa espanola, la carencia en el pago de compras y un amplio programa de financiacion automatica para la compra de sus articulos.Entre lo anterior cabe destacar que la Tarjeta de Compras de El Corte Ingles sea una de las mas populares en el bolsillo de los espanoles, con mas de 10,8 millones de tarjetas activas en 2008 y con un crecimiento constante desde su introduccion en 1968. Los titulares de la tarjeta de compras se benefician de una carencia automatica de un mes en el pago de la liquidacion mensual y la posibilidad de aplazar sin intereses los pagos a tres meses, o con bajos intereses hasta 36 meses.Ademas se benefician de al menos dos horas gratis en aquellos aparcamientos de pago de los centros y con la tarjeta se permite comprar cualquier producto que se venda en los centros pertenecientes al grupo El Corte Ingles inclusive productos estancados como Tabacos. Desde 2006 la tarjeta tambien permite el pago de compras en las estaciones de servicio del g rupo Repsol. No obstante lo anterior el factor precio comienza a resultar importante para el cliente, sobre todo en lo referente a la compra de alimentacion con una fuerte competencia.Para evitar que esto suponga un problema y cambiar la percepcion de los clientes El Corte Ingles ha lanzado una marca blanca de cesta basica, Aliada, y ha iniciado una campana de publicidad para intentar cambiar esta percepcion sobre sus marcas. Grupo Eroski es una empresa cooperativa espanola de distribucion con sede en Elorrio, (Vizcaya). Fundada en el Pais Vasco en 1969, hoy cuenta con unos 20. 000 trabajadores repartidos por toda Espana. La empresa cuenta con alrededor de 2. 00 establecimientos de diferentes marcas, entre las que se incluyen los hipermercados Eroski, supermercados Eroski City y Eroski center, supermercados Aliprox, supermercados Cash Record, supermercados Caprabo, supermercados Familia, Viajes Eroski, Opticas Eroski, Perfumerias IF, Tiendas de Deporte FORUM y Tiendas de ocio y cul tura ABAC. El Grupo Eroski, es un conglomerado de sociedades de diferente realidad juridica y distinta composicion accionarial, pudiendo encontrar desde Sociedades Cooperativas (la matriz Eroski S.Coop. ) hasta SAs con porcentajes de participacion accionarial diferentes (ej Caprabo 70% o Vegalsa 50%). Es parte de la Corporacion Mondragon en la di wad de distribucion. El nombre Eroski es una contraccion de las palabras en euskera erosi (comprar) y toki (lugar), traducible como lugar donde comprar. Dos aspectos son relevantes 1. La primera es la propiedad, de la que son depositarios en igualdad de condiciones unos 9. 000 trabajadores, con una persona un voto en la Asamblea General. . Actua desde su origen con la reinversion permanente de sus beneficios y destina el 10% de los resultados para el desempeno de Fundacion Eroski, que vertebra su accion social en favor del consumidor y la informacion, el desarrollo sostenible y la solidaridad. Consumidores socios Son unos 450. 000 ciudadan os asociados como consumidores a este grupo cuyos representantes participan en el gobierno de la empresa. A la par, unos 100. 000 ciudadanos son Amigos de Fundacion Eroski.Todos ellos participan de modo voluntario en las acciones formativas que Idea Sana Eroski desarrolla con asiduidad sobre materias de interes del ciudadano, desde aspectos relativos a la salud como iniciativas de solidaridad en colaboracion con diferentes ONG. Iniciativas sociales La Fundacion Eroski promueve igualmente iniciativas de cooperacion internacional para proyectos de desarrollo sostenible en paises necesitados. La Fundacion COPADE, la Fundacion AKWABA y la Federacion Espanola Religiosos Sanitarios F. E. R. S. ueron los utimos protagonistas al ser elegidos sus proyectos. En sus cuatro ediciones anteriores, la Fundacion EROSKI ha financiado los proyectos de las entidades que se mencionan por un importe que asciende a 536. 400,70 euros. En anteriores ediciones fueron beneficiarios los proyectos de Fundacion C. E. A. R. , Fundacion Intermon-Oxfam y COCEMFE, en 2003. Fundacion Ayuda en Accion, Fundacion Save The Children y Cruz Roja en el 2002. En 2001 fueron elegidos los proyectos de Fundacion Vicente Ferrer, Fundacion Inter rosy y Setem Cataluna.Su labor se ha visto reconocida durante el ejercicio 2004 con el Premio Europeo de Medio Ambiente a la empresa. El premio, otorgado por la Fundacion Entorno y respaldado por la Comision Europea, el Ministerio espanol de Ciencia y Tecnologia y la Sociedad Espanola de Participaciones Industriales, reconoce los esfuerzos de Grupo Eroski para el logro de un desarrollo compatible con la preservacion del entorno y el aumento del bienestar social. Asimismo, Grupo Eroski ha editado su Memoria de Sostenibilidad siguiendo las normas dictadas por Global Reporting Iniciative y AENOR.La Memoria es la primera publicada por una empresa de distribucion en Espana y ha sido elaborada conforme a la metodologia GRI2002, que ofrece una vision economica, social y medioambiental de la actividad de la empresa. Red comercial La red comercial de Eroski en Espana, en noviembre de 2007 la formaban 115 hipermercados Eroski. 1. 042 supermercados Eroski Center, Caprabo y Eroski City. El Supermercado Eroski Online, su servicio de compra online de alimentacion. 280 oficinas Eroski Viajes. 52 gasolineras. 44 tiendas de deporte Forum cavort. 310 perfumerias If. 5 tiendas de ocio y cultura ABAC. 28 plataformas de distribucion. Operador de Telefonia Movil (Eroski Movil). A esta red se le suman 584 autoservicios franquiciados. En Francia, Eroski cuenta ademas con 4 hipermercados, 16 supermercados y 17 gasolineras. En mayo de 2007 adquirio el 75% del Grupo Caprabo, ensena que se ha mantenido en mas de ccc tiendas en Cataluna y Madrid. Desde esa fecha los supermercados Caprabo comenzaron a sustituir sus productos de marca Caprabo por productos de la marca Eroski.Asi mismo, tambien se asocio con el grupo frances Intermarche, tambien conocidos como Los Mosque teros, y EDEKA (Alemania) creando una Alianza Internacional para la negociacion y compra conjunta. Desde finales de 2007, Eroski participa en el negocio de la telefonia movil, actuando como operador movil virtual (OMV) con la marca Eroski Movil. Marcas Eroski general Eroski selectia productos de alimentacion selectos Eroski natur productos de alimentacion naturales (carne, pescado, fruta) Ecron electrodomesticos Berthen electrodomesticos VistoBueno textil Romester productos deportivosLos productos de las marcas Eroski tienen como una de sus caracteristicas el incluir su nombre y diversa informacion aparte de en castellano, en euskera, catalan y gallego. Es una compania de distribucion, integrada dentro del segmento de supermercados, de roof 100% espanol. Su presidente ejecutivo es Juan Roig. A nivel nacional, esta presente en 46 provincias de 15 comunidades autonomas con una red de 1. 266 supermercados (25/02/10). Durante el 2007, alcanzo una facturacion de 13. 986 millones de eur os, un 15% mas que en 2006. Sus instalaciones y clientes son atendidos por mas de 62. 00 personas en toda la cadena, de las que el 100% estan en situacion de fijos. Los supermercados, con una sala de ventas de unos 1. ccc metros cuadrados de media, responden a un modelo de comercio urbano de proximidad, con un amplio surtido en alimentacion (fresca y seca), drogueria, perfumeria y comida para animales domesticos. Desde1993, Mercadona se inicio en la filosofia de Calidad total. Esta decision ha llevado a la compania a realinear sus objetivos instaurando el siguiente orden Cliente, que internamente es conocido con el apelativo de El Jefe, Trabajador, Proveedor, Sociedad y Capital.Recreacion de secciones de Tienda por ambientesEn grandes lineas esta filosofia tiene los siguientes efectos Comercial La estrategia comercial desarrollada por la empresa desde 1993 se denomina S. P. B. (Siempre Precios Bajos). Ademas, se esta trabajando sobre el aseguramiento de la calidad intrinseca de los productos impulsando la estrategia del Principio de Vida Recursos humanos El modelo de Calidad total nos ha llevado a considerar al trabajador como segundo objetivo de la empresa. Ejemplo de ello es que el 100% de las mas de 62. 000 personas que componen la organizacion son fijos.Tambien es de destacar el pago del 100% del sueldo en caso de incapacidad laboral, disfrutar de unos sueldos minimos que superan la media del sector, asi como la formacion en Calidad total a las mas de 62. 000 personas en cursos especificos de 70 horas/ano por trabajador, entre otras. Mercadona es una compania espanola de distribucion con sede y origen en la ciudad de Valencia. Su nombre proviene de la fusion de las palabras en valenciano Mercat (Mercado) y Dona (Mujer). Los Supermercados Mercadona, con una sala de ventas de una superficie media de 1. 00 m? , responden a un modelo de comercio urbano de proximidad, y mantienen un surtido en alimentacion, drogueria, perfumeria y complementos que se caracteriz a por potenciar la presencia de sus propias marcas blancas y reducir la oferta de aquellas marcas externas que no mantengan un minimo de rotacion. Origen e historia Mercadona S. A. nace en 1977, dentro del grupo Carnicas Roig, propiedad de Francisco Roig Ballester y su esposa Trinidad Alfonso Mocholi, con el objetivo de ampliar la comercializacion de carnes y expandirse al negocio de ultramarinos.En 1981 Juan Roig, uno de los hijos del anterior, compra a sus padres la empresa, que en ese momento cuenta con 8 tiendas de ultramarinos en Valencia, con el apoyo de su esposa y de sus hermanos Francisco, Amparo y Trinidad. Siendo nombrado su presidente ejecutivo, cargo en el que permanece hasta hoy, transforma los primitivos ultramarinos en una pequena cadena de supermercados que pronto se extenderian dentro de la Comunidad Valenciana.Aprovechando los parametros de crecimiento del sector de la distribucion durante los anos ochenta modernizacion del sector e incorporacion masiva de la muj er al mundo laboral, Mercadona comienza una expansion que se va a ver limitada por la introduccion en el sector del great(p) frances lo que va a producir una concentracion importante del sector de distribucion alimentaria y, debido a su potencia, una presion sobre los proveedores para abaratar el producto que dificilmente podia llevar a cabo Mercadona en ese momento.La estrategia de expansion se realiza en un primer momento mediante la adquisicion de otras empresas de su sector que comienzan a acusar la presion del capital frances y asi se hace en 1988 con la adquisicion de los 22 supermercados de Superette, en 1989 con la adquisicion de las empresas Cesta Distribucion y Desarrollo de Centros Comerciales, en 1991 con la adquisicion de Dinos y Super Aguilar y en 1998 con la adquisicion de las cadenas catalanas de Almacens Paquer y Supermercats Vilaro.Tambien se firman alianzas como la alcanzada en 1997 con Almacenes Gomez Serrano para introducirse en el mercado andaluz. La concentra cion mencionada coloca tambien a Mercadona en una situacion dificil en aquella epoca pero, a pesar de jugosas ofertas de compra de la empresa, Juan Roig decide mantenerla y explorar modelos de gestion que le permitan su crecimiento. En 1990 Juan Roig junto a su esposa Hortensia, se hacen con la mayoria del accionariado de la empresa.Como primera reaccion a esa concentracion Mercadona realiza una politica de ajuste de precios con los proveedores e invierte fuertemente en publicidad y en la realizacion de ofertas gancho, en las que se publicitan productos con un precio extremadamente atractivo compensandose el margen perdido con otros productos, pero pronto se ve que los resultados no son los esperados y se decide replantear la situacion mediante una estrategia nueva que vera la luz en 1993.Esta estrategia se realiza aplicando el modelo de Gestion de Calidad conglomeration (GCT) que se constituye desde una perspectiva multidisciplinar e integradora que conjuga aspectos logisticos, fi sicos, humanos y de liderazgo y cuyo fin es la creacion de valor para todos los grupos intervinientes en el negocio clientes, proveedores, recursos humanos y capital. Conforme su memoria durante el ano 2009, los Supermercados Mercadona alcanzaron una facturacion de 15. 05 millones de euros, y un beneficio neto de 270 millones de euros con un EBITDA de 725 millones de euros. Su cuota de mercado en la distribucion alimentaria es del 12,8% con presencia en 46 provincias y 15 de las 17 Comunidades Autonomas de Espana, no presente unicamente en el Pais Vasco y en Navarra, a traves de sus 1. 264 establecimientos. Su plantilla esta compuesta de 62. 000 empleados de los que el 67% son mujeres y la totalidad de la contratacion es indefinida.El capital de Mercadona es mayoritariamente familiar y en 2008 su Consejo de administracion se componia de las siguientes personas Modelo de gestion El crecimiento y expansion de Mercadona es considerado como un exito que ha llamado la atencion a estudios os del sector. Durante el periodo 1998-2003 el crecimiento de su volumen de ventas supero el 25% anual cuando el ratio normal del sector no suele superar el 9% siendo superada en crecimiento unicamente por Wal-Mart y consolidandola como la decimocuarta empresa de distribucion a nivel mundial.Segun Family Business Magazine esta entre las empresas familiares mas grandes del mundo, en el puesto 85 entre 250, siendo la numero 2 de Espana despues de El Corte Ingles. Segun su presidente Juan Roig, su estrategia central se ha resumido en la union de buenos salarios junto con una alta productividad, aplicando un modelo de gestion enfocado en el cliente denominado Gestion de Calidad Total (GCT).El modelo GCT en Mercadona fue adoptado en 1993 con el objetivo de defenderse ante la turbulencia que vivia el sector y establecer un modelo que ofreciera estabilidad en precios, proveedores y trabajadores que permitiera conseguir una clientela fija. Aunque los dos primeros anos tras la adopcion de la estrategia no se consiguieron resultados visibles a partir de 1995 se empiezan a cosechar los frutos de esta estabilidad y es a partir de este momento cuando comienza su crecimiento imparable.El modelo de Gestion de Calidad Total de Mercadona se enfoca en cinco aspectos de satisfaccion que por este orden son Satisfaccion del cliente (El Jefe en la terminologia de la empresa) mediante la estabilidad en los precios, los cuales siempre son atractivos, Siempre Precios Bajos, desechando la realizacion de ofertas gancho. Compromiso de los empleados ofreciendoles estabilidad en el puesto de trabajo, homogeinizacion de niveles y responsabilidades, formacion continuada, incentivos sobre objetivos y unos salarios ligeramente por encima de la media del sector. Vinculacion con los proveedores basada en la confianza, relaciones a largo plazo, estabilidad y colaboracion. La compensacion en el ajuste del precio se le compensa mediante una relacion a largo plazo, plazos de pago mas cortos que la c ompetencia, la transformacion de la marca propia a marca blanca y ayudas en mejoras productivas. En 1998 se crea la figura del Interproveedor productor que fabrica en exclusiva para Mercadona y comercializa a traves de las marcas de esta. En 2008 el numero de Interproveedores alcanza los 100 de los mas de 2. 00 proveedores existentes. Compromiso etico con el desarrollo y proteccion de la sociedad. Vinculacion con el Capital, al cual, mediante la satisfaccion de los elementos anteriores, se le satisface mediante un aumento de la productividad y una constancia en los beneficios. Este Modelo ha recibido no obstante criticas de la mayoria de los actores implicados. Asi la desaparicion de marcas externas y la preeminencia de las marcas blancas de la propia distribuidora ha provocado quejas de consumidores y de proveedores.La politica social, que segun la empresa es parte integrante de su Modelo de Gestion mediante contrataciones indefinidas de la totalidad de la plantilla, acciones tende ntes a la conciliacion de la vida laboral con la no apertura en festivos, apoyo a la natalidad con un mes mas de licencia por embarazo y el reparto de un porcentaje del beneficio entre los empleados que alcancen los objetivos propuestos ha sido tambien cuestionada en especial por el sindicato CNT que desde 2004 mantiene un conflicto laboral que fue dado a conocer por los propios empleados de la compania.Actualmente, el conflicto entre CNT y Mercadona sigue abierto, y se han presentado nuevas denuncias por acoso laboral y malos tratos hacia los trabajadores. En cuanto a los proveedores, ademas de las quejas de aquellos que fabrican marca propia por la retirada de sus productos, se han anunciado presiones excesivas de Mercadona a aquellos que fabrican sus marcas blancas, los conocidos por la empresa como Interproveedores, que limitan su libertad de accion, pretenden aduenarse de toda la cadena productiva o trasladar los costes de distribucion por expectativas no alcanzadas.Respecto a la acusacion de concentracion vertical cabe destacar la creacion por la familia Roig de Sociedades de Capital Riesgo como Angels Capital y Atitlan of import Capital que intervienen de forma prioritaria en las relaciones con los interproveedores. Marcas Hacendado alimentacion Deliplus perfumeria en general Compy comida para animales Bosque Verde drogueria Como tu perfumeria mujer 9,60 perfumeria computed axial tomography El cafetal cafe Entrepinares lacteos solidosPresencia geografica Mercadona posee 8 bloques logisticos con mas de 600. 000 m? en Valencia, Malaga, Barcelona, Alicante, Sevilla, Tenerife, Madrid y Gran Canaria. Tiene previsto abrir 3 nuevos bloques logisticos en Leon, Granada y Zaragoza y dispone de 2 almacenes satelites en Leon y Baleares. En cuanto a superficies de venta Mercadona dispone de 1. 264 supermercados en Espana. OpenCor es una cadena de Tiendas de Conveniencia, lo que supone abrir los 365 dias del ano durante 18 horas.Pensadas para dar servicio al cliente y satisfacer sus necesidades de cada dia, la compra de ultima hora o cualquier olvido, los establecimientos OpenCor ofrecen una nueva forma de comprar, rapida, proxima, comoda y con la mejor garantia de calidad. Cuenta, ademas, con la ventaja de pagar con la tarjeta de compra de El Corte Ingles. OpenCor vio la luz el 18 de mayo de 2000, con la inauguracion del primer establecimiento en Majadahonda (Madrid). Desde entonces ha experimentado un rapido crecimiento con la apertura de tiendas distribuidas por toda Espana.Gracias a que su superficie de venta es inferior a 500 metros cuadrados, el formato permite gran flexibilidad para ubicarse en las principales capitales de provincia A Coruna, Alicante, Almeria, Barcelona, Castellon, Cordoba, Gerona, Granada, Las Palmas, Lerida, Madrid, Malaga, Murcia, Pontevedra, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Sevilla, Tarragona, Valencia y Zaragoza. Desde noviembre de 2008, es tambien la marca de referencia en las Estaciones de Servicio fruto del ac uerdo entre El Corte Ingles y Repsol (hasta ahora como conocidas como Repsol-Supercor. La Superestacion).De esta forma, bajo la marca comercial OpenCor, encontraremos dos formatos de establecimientos Mas de 183 tiendas de conveniencia repartidas por todo el territorio nacional Mas de 34 tiendas ubicadas en las Estaciones de Servicio Respsol- OpenCor. La Superestacion, adaptadas a las necesidades actuales, donde el cliente, ademas de repostar carburante, puede realizar su compra comodamente en una superficie de mas de 150 metros cuadrados . Se trata de una de las ensenas del grupo con mayor potencial de crecimiento. Los centros OpenCor ofrecen mas de 8. 00 articulos, que comprenden una amplia gama de articulos de alimentacion, drogueria, perfumeria asi como pan recien hecho, prensa y revistas, musica, peliculas, libros, juguetes, videojuegos y regalos. Ademas, en estas tiendas el cliente puede recargar su movil, revelar sus fotografias y realizar fotocopias. Las tiendas de OpenCor ofrecen una amplia y equilibrada gama de productos de alimentacion, perfumeria, regalos, ocio y prensa, ademas de otros servicios . Dentro de los planes de diversificacion de la compania, la ensena OpenCor represento un reto.El termino OpenCor se selecciono entre muchos, pues representaba perfectamente la vocacion con la que se creaba la nueva linea de negocio del grupo. El conjunto del termino, que unia la palabra del ingles open y cor resaltaba, por un lado, la importancia de que fuera una tienda siempre abierta y, por otro, la ventaja de contar con el respaldo y la garantia del lider. Datos de la Empresa OpenCor es una cadena espanola de tiendas de conveniencia perteneciente al grupo de empresas El Corte Ingles, cuyo presidente es Isidoro Alvarez Alvarez y su director general Victor del Pozo Gil.Constituye un nuevo concepto de cadena de tiendas abiertas los 365 dias del ano durante 18 horas, pensadas para satisfacer las necesidades de cada dia, la compra de ultima hora, o cualqui er olvido. Las tiendas Opencor presentan secciones de productos de primera necesidad (alimentacion, drogueria, y similares) asi como articulos de ocio (discos, peliculas, videojuegos, etc. ), regalos y otros productos. Opencor se inauguro el 18 de mayo del ano 2000 a traves de su centro de Majadahonda en Madrid.Las tiendas Opencor existentes en las estaciones de servicio de Repsol se denominan Repsol-Opencor y se gestionan por la sociedad Gespevesa,1 cuyo accionariado se reparte a partes iguales entre El Corte Ingles y Repsol. Previamente a esta denominacion se denominaron Repsol-Supercor desde 1998. Distribucion geografica Opencor (Tiendas de Conveniencia S. A. ) y Repsol-Opencor (Gespevesa S. A. ) disponen de 187 tiendas en Espana 58 en Madrid 40 en Andalucia 39 en Cataluna 32 en la Comunidad Valenciana 9 en Galicia 4 en Aragon 3 en Canarias 2 en Murcia Tienda tradicionalLa tienda tradicional es un negocio en el que la gente puede adquirir bienes o servicios a cambio de una contra prestacion economica. Se trata de establecimientos pequenos con atencion directa por parte de un vendedor o dependiente, en el caso de algunas tiendas podemos encontrar mas de uno. Tambien le caracteriza la existencia de un mostrador que separa la sala de venta de los articulos de venta. En este tipo de establecimientos el cliente es asiduo y cercano al comerciante lo que hace que el trato y la atencion sea mas directo que en otro tipo de establecimientos como las grandes superficies.El dependiente suele conocer al consumidor y sus gustos, lo que le ayuda a saber como venderle y que venderle. El surtido suele ser limitado. Suelen tener poca variedad de cada producto, dos o tres marcas aproximadamente. Aunque son establecimientos son pequenos vende por su proximidad y cercania. Su tamano varia entre 15 y 50 metros de superficie. Este tipo de tiendas estan desapareciendo cada dia mas debido al asentamiento de las grandes superficies en las ciudades o nucleos urbanos y a la cercania d e los supermercados. Lo que ha provocado el cierre de muchos de estos comercios en los ultimos anos.Tienda Tradicional 54 dosis cielo,azul, delicado 2,69 beastly 2,86 La Toja (2,69)72 dosis cielo azul, delicado y frescor 3,90 crystals azul, floral 3,99 480 gr36 dosis cielo azul y delicado 2,59 60 dosis 4,15 Vernel Crystals 4,02 54 dosis azul 3,20 Crystals 3,52 45 dosis azul, oceanico 2,69 Marsella 2,86 Relax 40 dosis 2,86 72 dosis Oceanico 3 Colonia, Marsella, Rosa Hidratante 3,2 Relax 64 dosis 3,272 dosis 3,30 144 dosis 5,70 essentis relajante de 64 dosis 345 dosis azul, oceanico, Marsella y genus Rosa hidratante, 2,8572 dosis Azul 3 750ml 3,67Azul y caricias. azul y caricias 4 45 dosis Marsella y Aloe vera. 2,86 45 dosis 2,82 azul, caricias, aloe vera 72 dosis 3,90 azul, caricias y aloe vera4 litros 4,95 oferta, antes a 6,42 45 dosis Caricias 2,59 Aloe vera 2,85 72 dosis 3,41 Azul y flores72 dosis el 2,40 flores blancas y brisa suave. 72 dosis es de 1,7 colonia, aire rocio, air e prima, aire Marsella, aire pasion, aire verano, aire colonia. 2 litros 1,15 4litros 3 2 litros azul 2,1572 dosis azul, spa, colonia, talco 1,60 1,5 litros azul 2,15 Conclusion Empresas de suavizantes UNILEVERDesde mediados del siglo XX, Unilever opera en Espana a traves de marcas presentes en la vida diaria de los espanoles. La presencia de Unilever en Espana se remonta a 1948. Desde entonces, ha experimentado un proceso de crecimiento similar al de la compania a nivel mundial. Actualmente, aproximadamente 1. 200 personas trabajan en nuestro pais, donde Unilever dispone de sus oficinas centrales en Barcelona y dos plantas industriales en Leioa (Vizcaya) y Aranjuez (Madrid). Ademas de una red comercial distribuida por todo el pais. En 2005, el grupo lanzo el programa One Unilever, con el que quiso reforzar su imagen corporativa.Mimosin es una marca emblematica en la categoria de suavizantes. De gran tradicion, siempre ha sido sinonimo de suavidad y caricia, ahora tambien incorpra fragancias para dejar en la ropa un agradable y fresco aroma. Mimosin esta presente en nuestros hogares desde hace varies generaciones y con una enorme notoriedad gracias a la presencia entranable de su icono el osito de Mimosin. AC MARCA Notit pertenece al GRUPO AC MARCA, es un grupo internacional que tiene filiales en Portugal, Francia, Republica Checa, Mexico, Hungria, Rumania, Chile, Republica Eslovaca.Exporta a mas de 50 paises en todo el mundo. AC MARCA es la empresa que engloba las marcas enfocadas al cuidado del hogar detergentes, limpiahogares, insecticidasSus marcas consolidadas y lideres en su segmento de negocio como NORIT, ALEX, YAK, ORION, GIOR e IBERIA estan en constante evolucion para ofrecer mejores soluciones adaptadas a las necesidades del consumidor del S. XXI. NORIT NADA LAVA filch MAS CUIDADO. La marca lider en el cuidado de las prendas delicadas, ha evolucionado igual que sus consumidoras y hoy ofrece una amplia gama de productos para el cuidado de la ropa.No rit bebe (hipoalergenico), Cuidado delicado (a mano y a maquina), Pieles sensibles, Prendas modernas, Suavizante En 1944 nace la marca Norit, el primer detergente para lavar lana y seda, con su emblematico borreguito. En 1974 Norit crece con las versiones en liquido para lavado a mano. En 1995 se inicia la expansion internacional del grupo. HENKEL Henkel A Brand Like a Friend Este lema sintentiza la vision de hacer la vida de las personas mas facil, mejor y mas agradable con nuestras marcas y tecnologias.Con sede central en Dusseldorf (Alemania), Henkel cuenta con 52. 000 empleados en todo el mundo y es una de las empresas alemanas con mas presencia internacional en el mercado global. Consumidores de 125 paises en todo el mundo confian en las marcas y tecnologias de Henkel. El grupo aleman se instalo en Espana en 1960 tras comprar la empresa espanola Gota de Ambar, S. A. Actualmente Henkel Iberica cuenta con una plantilla de unos 1. 550 empleados. En 2008 la filial alcanzo unas ve ntas a terceros de 639 millones de euros.Henkel cuenta con 4 centros de produccion y distribucion en la Peninsula Iberica Montornes del Valles, Sant Adria de Besos, Abrera y Sevilla, ademas de 3 centros de distribucion adicionales en Azuqueca de Henares, Castellbisbal y Sant Andreu de la Barca. Henkel opera en tres areas de negoci Vernel es la marca de suavizantes para la ropa que no solo suaviza tus prendas, sino que las deja con una agradable fragancia que permanece por mas tiempo. ?Caracteriscas del producto Un frescor de ensueno Pieles sensibles Aromaterapia